Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The challenges of managing communication, leadership and decision Essay

The challenges of managing communication, leadership and decision making - Essay Example The role of managers is to level possible disagreements and create positive climate and atmosphere. In hospitality, sector, cohesive groups, and self-managing teams create a tension and pressure which has a negative impact on critical analysis and decision-making process. The challenge of management is to restructure self-managing teams and introduce new methods and forms of communication between teams members. Cohesiveness is more likely when members of a team are to gather for a reasonable length of time, and changes occur only slowly. Strict guidelines and rules established by a manager will help to avoid conflict situations and turnover of members. Low morale and a negative attitude are often associated with a large number of team members undertaking similar work. This requires realistic planning by which the degree and quality of goal achievement can be determined. Teamwork coordination should be stated clearly and communicated to those concerned, and to those who are subject to the operation of the control system. Decision-making has a great influence on effective teamwork, because it involves some degree of participation. Team decision-making uses an overlapping form of structure (Dittmer 2001). Cross-cultural environment and cross-cultural teams create another challenge for management. This issue is typical for hospitality management and communication based on the nature of business itself. Hospitality management operates on the global scale and has to deal with different customer groups and culturally diverse employees. In this case, communication and leadership are the main tools used by management to eliminate cultural differences and tension (Beardwell et al 2001). There are always certain groups in any society that are discriminated against unfavorably due to the prejudices and preconceptions of the people with whom they have to deal. These preconceptions are sometimes verbalized, but often not, and the people holding these preconceptions may well be unaware of the way that they see and judge things and people. The key to managing a diverse workforce is increasing individual awareness of and sensitivity to differences of race, gender, social class, sexual orientation, physical ability, and age. The locus of change is the individual and change itself is both intra- and inter-personal. The action plan will can be based on employee' survey (questionnaire) aimed to identify the main areas of improvement and current problems faced by hospitality managers (Dow 1999). Primarily, it is crucial to develop mutual acceptance and membership within each team. Members in different departments and corporate office environment should have an initial mistrust of each other and a fear of inadequacies. If they remain defensive and limit their behavior through conformity and ritual, the manager should adopt diversity policies to reduce a negative impact (Bowen, Ford 2004). The priority is with questions of likes and dislikes, and power or dependency of group members. Critics admit that there is

Examination of why governments become involved in tourism and events Essay

Examination of why governments become involved in tourism and events and highlights the roles and the functions that they play within the tourism system - Essay Example Apart from this, the government supports the interest in their environment and cultural resources (Diekmann and McCabe, 2011). Several countries have been involved in the creation of tourism activities making them develop an agency to cater for the industrial activities (Qin, Wall and Liu, 2011). The main concern of tourism in most countries is to increase economic standards. Different governments should get involved in tourism to provide a suitable environment for tourism and attract minor business within the state to take part in tourism (Qin, Wall and Liu, 2011). They also aim at protecting the scarcity of capital and manage inexperience within their governments are usually advocated as a basis for states involvement in the action. Socialist governments have a weak private sector managing tourism, while the government takes part in the major roles in controlling tourisms. The state creates several jobs to their citizens through tourism and hotel industries (Qin, Wall and Liu, 2011). In developing countries, they face numerous challenges in inexpert private areas and they have scarcity of capital and lack of enough monetary resources (Diekmann and McCabe, 2011). This makes the entire process of tourism a responsibility of the government instead of private sectors within the country. This involvement is highly influenced by their interests in profits made from tourism. Challenges resulting from tourism can only be reduced or controlled by the governments mainly when the benefits of the local sector differ from individuals of the group and state as a whole (Diekmann and McCabe, 2011). The other major responsibility of the government is to increase social, political and economic development resulting from tourism. For instance, the China government, which is a socialist government, is highly controlled by the state. Their policy has a profound impact on tourism (Diekmann and

Monday, October 28, 2019

Looking for Methods Essay Example for Free

Looking for Methods Essay With the rampant use of the inter net today, the students in todays generation get their resources from the world wide web. In effect, most of the resources are easily copy-pasted to the students word documents. It is very likely for them to be accused of plagiarism. Now research resources can still be integrated into paper works without the worry of plagiarizing. There are certain methods on how to properly cite resources. First thing that would leave a writer out from damage is to cite their sources. Acknowledge the author of the source and then discuss the details of the specific source. It can be done through paraphrasing and quoting from the original source. The method of quoting first and then explaining what that specific passage is can also be effective. Quoting is a harmless way of integrating a source into ones work. The citation is very important as well. It is important to indicate page numbers and even line numbers for the sake of references. Another good method would be introducing the author and then following it with a brief summary (Alred, 2003, p. 153). An example would be: Fear Itself: Depression Life is written by Robert McElvaine and discusses how the Great Depression has hit Americans. It talks about how Americans in the early 20th century battle with starvation and unemployment, which affected a lot of Americans. Soon, the situation helped them change to become a better person. The country has suffered the Great Depression in the 1930s. People got mixed perceptions in this difficult time though (McElvaine, 1993, p. 23). Notice how the paragraph started with the authors name and immediately gives a background of the article he wrote. The importance of doing this right away in the first paragraph is for the sake of coherence in writing. With proper citation, paraphrasing and summarizing research sources can be integrated into another persons writing without plagiarism. References Alred, G. (2003). Handbook of Technical Writing. Michigan: St. Martins Press. Lester, J. (2005). Research Paper Handbook: Your Complete Guide. California: Good Year Books. McElvaine, R. (1993). The Great Depression: America, 1929-1941. New York: Times Books.

A Political Economic Social Technology Analysis Of Malaysia Tourism Essay

A Political Economic Social Technology Analysis Of Malaysia Tourism Essay 0.0 Introduction Nowadays international business is a vital aim for every firm despite small firm or large firm and they are moving toward to international business for the sake of foreseeable future of their business. Besides, international business is known to be business dealings crossing national borders at any stage of the transaction which included trading such as import and export activities that carry out by the small and large firm from domestic to international market across the world (King, 2008; Aneff, 2010). Moreover, at present, international business can be acknowledged as global business whereby the firms have to adapt their businesses to the outside world in different markets that the firms seek and approach to and deal with many different cultures that concern in every country (Nakate, 2010; King, 2008). With the changing liberalization strategy in the whole world, a lot of firms are gaining benefits from international trade and investments. On top of that, an agreement of GATT (Gen eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) was introduced to get control over the rate charges of the tariff and trade barriers (Geneva, 1986). In contrast, after the formation of GATT, in year 1995 followed by the formation of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Besides, there are 2 important forces that drive a business to international business which are the technological development and the disappearance of a substantial part of the communist world (Lausanne, n.d.). Shangri-la Asia Limited is a company with the principle activity of investment holding which focusing on the business and operation of hotels as one with associated real estate properties with providing hotel management or related services (Bloomberg, 2009; Shangri-La Asia Limited, 2009). The company mainly focuses in operating hotels and leasing spaces for commercial and residential. Shangri-la was incorporated in Bermuda and its main headquarters is located in Quarry Bay, Hong Kong. Furthermore, Shangri-la Asia Limited was founded in year 1971 and until now, Shangri-la has been in operating in the industry for 39 years and operates its hotels in the company of Shangri-La, Rasa, Trader, Summer Palace, and Shang Palace. Moreover, the group managed 65 hotels at the end of 2009 with 47 hotels invested as the equity which managed by its subsidiaries. Besides, as of year 2009, Shangri-La hotel employs approximately 260,000 employees in the Asia countries (Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, 2 010). 1.0 Macro Environment 1.1 Political Environment In China, the government attaches great importance to the tertiary industry in their country and there was positive government policies advance tourism in order to build tertiary industry to be one of their pillar industries (Lew, Yu, Ap, Zhang, 2003). Besides, the hotel and tourism industry in China had rapidity raise after the entry of World Trade Organization (WTO) to the domestic market in China. As according to the announcement from China National Tourism Administration (CNTA), with the entry of WTO in China, it brings the foreign international hotel industry to invest and set up hotel in China and the government of China approved the application of setting up wholly foreign-owned travel agencies in China thus, demand for hotel industry boosted up (Xinhua, 2004). Moreover, base on the Chinese governments policy of long term goal, the inbound tourist arrivals to China will achieve 210 million by the year of 2020 in which this would benefit the hotel and tourism industry in China to gain more profit on the tourist visit. For instance, base on the information published by the Shanghai Tourism Commission (STC) in China, the entry of foreign travel companies would help to stimulate and rise of the business of the local tourism industry in the case of SARS that happened seriously in China in 2003 (China Daily, 2004). On the other hand, the political issue would be on political tension between Taiwan and Mainland China and these threats would be considered as the unforeseen event that the hotel developer and investor will take into account (Guo,, 2004). 1.2 Economical Environment In 1992, China expanded its economic reform along with the open door policy, consequently bring benefits to the business activities and international tourist arrivals to China continued to increase and thus hotel investment is stimulated. In contrary, China government also ensured that overseas hotel do not dominate the market in which the action taken is to prevent the rise of competitiveness between local companies and foreign companies in the benefit of their professionalism, experience and resource advantages. Thus, to avoid economic leakage, Chinese government had implemented the policy of encouraging Chinese Hotels to establish in the country itself and also in foreign countries for Chinese to use with the association between Chinese Airlines and Hotels industry in order to retain the money from outflow to other countries (Zhang, Pine and Lam, 2005). Moreover, Chinas sound economic growth stimulates the Hotel and tourism industry. As mentioned above about the openness to outsid e world had helped economy grow rapidly. The GDP of China in 2009 was RMB 33, 535.3 billion where RMB 14, 291.8 billion contributed by the tertiary industries with the growth rate of 8.9 compares with the previous year (Chinability, 2009). An impressive economy growth will generate enhancement in infrastructure for hotel development, however, the sustainability of the economic boom are concern in the problem of bad-loan that commonly faced by state-owned banks. To overcome this problem, government needs to counter a soft landing for the rapid growing economy otherwise an unexpected of potential economic slowdown would occur and certainly bring some negative effects to the hotel industries in the country (Yu and Gu, 2005). 1.3 Social Environment Social environment concern is an important issue for the business developer and investor in China as Chinese used to practice the relationship and network of Guan Xi in their daily life which including during the business dealing process. In fact, Guan xi can be an influential practice compare with the Western-based business practice which westerners or foreign investors are not eligible to gain interest on this practice as such practice would be commonly focus on the motive of profit. Thus, foreign companies need to corporate with the local Chinese companies as partner in order to enjoy the privilege with the support of Chinese partner to avoid some existing and future legal control and international trade rules. For instance, the foreign owner of the properties must depend on the local labor and partner in turn to get the reliable power supply and water supply (Zhang, Pine and Lam, 2005). On the other hand, hotel industries benefit from holiday and vacation when residents take holi days and this would lead to higher demand on the tourism and hotel industry in which the people shifting their lifestyle and get off from work with take effect on the domestic consumption. For example, in China, the government had intentionally increased the public holidays where made 3 weeks long holiday per year such as each during the Spring Festival, May Day Festival and the National Day holiday (Lew, Yu, Ap and Zhang, 2003). 1.4 Technology Environmental Generally, a good quality service to customer is the most important factor that makes the hotel to be more outstanding than others and to get more attraction from customer therefore this would influence the guests to make decision on the selection of which hotel is the most worthy and preferable to consume with the most satisfaction among those entire hotels that available in the area. Besides, with the acknowledgement of gaining better profit margins and financial returns, the hotel industries in China emphasis on the implementation of IT facilities in order to improve with efficiency daily operation and meanwhile to obtain benefits such as operational cost reduction and enhancement of service quality deliver to customer (Law, Giri and Michigan, 2005). In fact, in Hong Kong, China, the use of IT to conduct daily operation is generally practicing by the hotel industries in country since year 1997 (Law and Au, 1998). Besides, in China, the adoption of Computer Reservation System (CRS) and hotel Property Management System (PMS) which utilize by hotel that ranked 3 stars and above was introduced to bring the companies into the market and to improve the interconnectivity by promoting about destination, information about their company and additionally assist on the efficiency and accuracy of internal information transmission and effectiveness of management. Meanwhile, the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) within the hotel industries in China which focused on the front office functions such as reception, reservation, catering, marketing, customer relationship management and others had brought benefit to the operation of the industry (Ma, Buhalis and Song, 2003). 2.0 The International Consideration 2.1 Operation Shangri-La Hotel and Resort operated almost in all over the place in the world where headquarter is in Hong Kong. Shangri-La Hotel and Resort is a well known brand which the brand name is so recognizable and respected by the people around the world. Besides, the groups main activities are emphasis on the ownership, operation and management of the hotels. At present, the group holds and operates 68 hotels under the trademark of Shangri-La, Trader brands, Rasa, Summer Palace, and Shang Palace in different countries with a room inventory of over 30, 000 in which operation carry out among Asia in current year which included of China, Japan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Taiwan, Republic of Maldives, Philippines and Myanmar. Furthermore, the company had expanded their company to Middle East countries such as Sultanate of Oman and United Arab Emirates; Europe country in France; North America country in Canada; Oceana countries in Austria and Fuji Island. In addition, in year ended 2009 the company had equity interests in 49 operating hotels containing 24,432 of guest rooms (Golden Circle, 2010) Moreover, the company will develop and build up 29 more hotels in various countries in which project development of 1 hotel in Paris in 2010, 11 hotels will be establish in China, India, Singapore, Macau, Qatar, Austria in 2011, 9 hotels in China, India, Mongolia, United Kingdom, Turkey and Canada in 2012 and nevertheless 7 hotels in China and Russia in 2013 and 1 hotel in Philippine in 2014 (Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, 2010) 2.2 The PEST in Malaysia 2.2.1 Social and Culture Environmental Commonly, Malaysia is known as an Islamic country therefore certainly Malaysia is involving in the Halal food industry and Malaysia is the major exporter of halal product to Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) countries such as AEAN and Middle Eastern markets in 2008. Malaysia has made an integrated long term plan to develop the halal industry which including the goods and services related sectors namely, meat and meat-based product, processed food, cosmetic and personal care products and pharmaceutical products (Sadek, 2010). Thus, the halal certification would be the main requirement for the tertiary industries in Malaysia that needed conforming to it especially on the food and beverage which play an important role in overall satisfaction level such as halal dining is a necessity for Muslims. In fact, according to Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM), the statistic shows that out of 991 hotels in Malaysia, there are only 10.19% of the hotels which amount to 101 h otels that certified with Halal logo (Zailani, Fernando and Mohamed, 2010). Besides, to set up businesses in Malaysia require some general needs of its local market segment included religious and cultural practices such as to being halal conscious through implementation of crescent rating which this system is require under the traditional Muslim rules to the examine the halal friendliness of facilities and services in hotel industries in Muslim country (Fazal, 2009) For instance, Awana Spa Island Resort in Langkawi crescent rated at category 5 which indicate that the hotel accommodate some specific Muslim needs and Shangri-Las Rasa Sayang Resort Spa in Penang rated at category 3 (Crescent Rating, 2010). Moreover, regarding the culture in Malaysia, the main facilities of prayer room or Surau is important for Muslims as they required praying 5 times daily due to the ease of travel from current location to mosque. Besides, the culture in the aspect of employee working hour, there are slightly different if compare with oversea working time as for Muslims every Friday afternoon is the weekly prayer time thus Muslim employee need to leave their work place at this time (Usama, 2007). Moreover, festival holiday is a main issue that need to concern in Malaysia as Malaysia has much festival to celebrate such as Hari Raya Aidilfitri, Chinese New Year and others therefore public holiday would interrupt the operation performance of the company where by employee off from work on the particular day. (Zailani, Omoar and Kopong, 2010) 2.2.2 Political and Legal Environment in Malaysia According to the A.M. Best country risk report, Malaysia has a moderate level of political risk which categorized as CRT-3 which indicate that Malaysia is a developing country that having a developing legal environment, legal system and business environment (A.M. Best, 2010). Generally, political risk comprises the stability of the government and society in a country and here the political environment would be first concentrate on the change of government and key leader in Malaysia. Up to date in 2010 political position in Malaysia involves two separate downside risks which happened 2 years back in 2008; the political power was changed due to the general election and the result was the National Front which had ruled Malaysia for 52 years had lose control and defeated by opposition (Marshall, 2009; Stamer, 2010). Then again, according to the executive summary by Political Economic Risk Consultancy, the political issue that foreign investors concern is about the hesitation on how good the opposition parties perform after they gained the political authority as a Malaysia government in handling some problem such as poor policies and others. Additionally, as a result of some political accusation, the case of Anwar on sodomy gave a flashpoint on the political stability condition. Due to the changes in the government authority, the political stability in Malaysia is affected much over these years and would bring further damage to investment in the country if the trend maintains (Marshall, 2009; Political Economic Risk Consultancy, 2010). 2.3 Internationalization Method The internationalization process is a very important process for a company that plan to expand their business outside their domestic base market by adopting several internationalization methods. In Shangri-La, the internationalization method that the group adopting is more on equity based method on foreign direct investment. The Group is using its equity assets in the expansion of their company throughout the world and for another purpose of project development in new countries. Moreover, investment into a company is the competitive advantage of this company. Additionally, the Group is adopting 2 main internalization methods on its subsidiaries which through merger, acquisition and alliances. According to the financial report of Shangri-La in Malaysia, the subsidiaries are consolidated by using the purchase method of accounting in which the Group has the ability to exercise the power in the subsidiaries in order to manage the financial and operating policies of an entity as to attain benefits from their daily activities (Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, 2010). Alternatively, some subsidiaries are consolidating by adopting merger method for example, UBN holding Sdn Bhd which happened on 1st of January 2006. As for the associate methodology, the Group has major influence but not control over the financial and operating policies. The hotel properties located in Malaysia at 31 December 2009 included Rasa Sayang Resort Spa, Traders Hotel, Golden Sands Resort, Palm Beach Resort in Penang, Shangri-La Hotel in Kuala Lumpur and Rasa Ria Resort in Sabah. (Shangri-La Malaysia, 2008) 2.4 Problem and Solution The problem that the company confronts would be on the aspect of the culture differences between the origin country and the other country for example Malaysia. Cultural differences of international hotel groups would influence the operation of the company and also the efficiency of their human resource in the company. Besides, condition of cultural differences dilemma would also harm the company from gaining better return in either investment nor operating profit which due to the competition among the hotel industries in the specific country. Thus, to overcome these cultural dilemmas, some solution on these problems needed to be implementing in order to resolve the problem to prevent any operation failure. The solution proposed would be through adoption of cross cultural strategies. According to Master and Prideaux, culture can be distinguished into 2 views that represent an ideological perspective including beliefs, norm, value and customs. Next, would represent the material element which including of the dining etiquette, where to buy and where to travel. (Prideaux, Moscardo and Laws, 2006) As mentioned above, the main cultural problems that face in Malaysia is about the Halal certification and also the employee culture problem. Therefore, from the cross cultural management approaches, it must emphasis on the staff inspiration and motivation method and improvement on product and service quality in order to satisfy customers demands. Firstly, company should implement the strategy of cross cultural empathy through training and education that enables the staffs in the group from origin country to let them to be more considerate to accept other people cultures in Malaysia as well as the staffs in the company itself. This would help to solve any conflict rises conc erning to the culture misunderstanding among three major races employees of Malaysian and between the headquarter staffs rather than behave stubbornly on their own local culture perspective. Besides, in order to solve the cultural diversity problem in the case of halal certification, the company needs to employ the strategy of cross cultural through special design and marketing of hotel products and services. There are a lot of customers come from different religions and backgrounds, thus customers have different needs on the services and products. By using this strategy, the company is able to improve the degree of customers satisfaction whereby the products and services is specially designed for the purpose of tailor-made to adapt to different need of the customers. For instance, Muslims in Malaysia require some halal facilities and also on the foodstuff, as a result the hotel must pay close attention on serving the proper food at the table and also the facilities of prayer room in their hotel to allow Muslim to conduct prayer during the time that they are in the hotel area. 3.0 The Growth of Business Shangri-la has a well operational performance which its operations contribute the main source of revenue and operating profit for the Group. Besides, the concentration of the growth in the luxury hotel market in Asia would particularly focus on China. Thus, the group is continued to plan out the strategies of setting up new hotel across the world. According to the financial report in 2009, a total of 7 hotels opened for business during the year and 4 hotel being subsidiaries of the group. During these years, Shangri la is adopting the market development strategies which the group is targeting new markets or new areas in different countries. For example, in 2011, the group will conduct foreign direct investment of 29 hotels in other countries such Qatar, Austria and others. Besides, the implementation of product development strategy in the group develops their services and quality to gain higher level satisfaction from customers through training of employees to deliver better services to customer. For instance, the networking of the Shangri-la throughout the international subsidiaries had improved through communication and result in the integration with its international counterparts by applying uniform standards for inbound and outbound logistics and this give rise to higher level of efficiency in the operation, sales and marketing. Consequently, Shangri-La had gained positive reviews and reputation from regulatory bodies and this benefit the company to connect into all revenue-generating marketing channels (Shangri-La Asia Limited, 2009; Chitika 2009). As for the future direction of growth, according to Ansoffs Product-Market Matrix, the product development strategy should highlight in the company. The reason is that it is important to have possession of distinctive advantage over its competitor by reason of keen competition existed among the local and other international hotel industries in the market. Besides, hotel industry is leisure and tourism destination places, customers are the main earnings sources from the hotel operations, it seem to be not enough to have similar existing facilities promoted in the hotel to attract customers. Thus, an innovation technique is required to improve the product and services in the hotel in order to maintain an advantage over competitors meanwhile to attract more customers. By examining through proactive development strategy to develop the product base on the anticipation of the evolution of customers needs; or through the adaption of reactive development strategy whereby the product is devel op in order to deal with the customer needs. Besides, as a result of adapting product development matrix, the company is able to develop and launch new product or services where the products or services are presently not being offered by any other competitors however it able to keep the existing market and nevertheless attract more new customers. For instance, product development strategy including offering high-level service to the customers through providing some specialty facilities such as promotion on the discount offer to their customer base on an alliance with the air companies and provide free shuttle for the customer to take them from airport to the hotel. Thus, Shangri-La hotel must provide services that other competitors do not offer and the most importantly, making the customer feel at home and even better than that. 4.0 New Venture The new venture of Shangri-la hotel would using the foreign direct investment method which the company will expand and build up hotel under equity base method in the chosen country, Kingdom of Heaven, Bhutan. While Shangri-La investing in Bhutan, the group will suggested to conduct joint venture with the local partner such as the tourism agencies to increase the inflow of the tourist to the hotel and other share value-added joint venture, for instance, merge with the local hotel industry where the hotel contribute the same function and this will reduce the competition among the similar industry and nevertheless increase economies of scale. As Shangri-La is moving into the new market and segment, it is necessary to understand what strength determines the profit of their industry. Thus, Porters Five Forces analysis would be taken to identify all the threat in hotel industries in Bhutan. Firstly, the threat of supplier power in the market will take into concern. The supplier power in ho tel industry would be the availability of skill of the employees that provide services to customers due to tertiary industry is totally focused in services. Thus, Shangri-La need to provide a high level of training program to ensure the employees are able to carry out best service to their customers. This is because employees can influence the profitability and the attractiveness of the hotel itself. Besides, supplier power can be the organization that control and provide the food and beverage to the hotel industry in the country. In this case, there are plenty of suppliers in Bhutan which mainly working on supplying of the food for local distribution whereby they import all the food stuff items, such as the company of Dollay Food Product, Sharyang Enterprise, Sonam Choki Enterprise and many others suppliers (Cheaponsale, 2010). So supplier power force is considered weak to the company. Secondly, would be the buyer power. This force reflects the strength of bargaining power from the customers which concerning the level of quality served and price rate of the hotel. Commonly, from the behavior of the customers, customers seek for best quality with lesser price of hotel, solution for this problem would be the hotel management should make some adjustment to its strategies in order to meet the demand of the customers to avoid switching among the hotels in the market, if the switching problem happen then the buyer power is high which will bring disadvantage to the company. Thirdly, competitive rivalry is also a serious force that the company has to concern on it. This force would focus on the number of the competitors in the same industry in Bhutan. In Bhutan, there are hotels that available in the specific geographic areas. For instance, According to The Hotel Association of Bhutan (HAB), Bhutan is divided in 20 administrative districts and there are 121 hotels in the country and exactly with 34 hotels with 3 stars and above are available in the certain districts in Bumthang, Trongsa, Punakha, Thimphu, Wangdue Phodrang and Paro; the rest are ranked as 2 stars and below (Tourism Council of Bhutan, 2010; Cabinet Secretariat, 2010). Thus, competitive rivalry in hotel industry is quite high due to the number of competitors offering in the market and the company should adapt specific strategy to overcome the problem such as create differentiation on the product and services in order to differentiate themselves from the competitors. Due to the problem faced by the competitive rivalry, the threat of substitution which examine on the similar product and services is high in the hotel industry because there are a 121 hotels accessible in the Bhutan and enable the customers to have alternative choices on what hotel that they prefer to select. Thus, better marketing strategy is needed for the company to deal with the substitution problem such as changes in technology and services in the hotel could bring some advantage like good reputation for the hotel to compete with its rivals. Lastly, threat of new entry is high in the hotel industry in Bhutan as Hotel Association of Bhutan (HAB) reported that there 46 new hotels will open up in the country. However, the Bhutan government had approved 100 percent of foreign direct investment to build 5-star hotels and 70percent of foreign direct investment for 4-stars hotels in Bhutan in early 2010 (Dawa, 2010; Dahal, 2009). In this case, Shangri-La has the total advantage of investing and setting up hotel in Bhutan as Shangri-La is ranked as 5-star hotel. Besides, the structural expansion of the hotel in Bhutan would be difficult because most hotels was in debt due to the financial institution had stopped giving loan for hotel construction. This is because of governments policy on the existing hotels that they are required to upgrade their hotels within 2 years time in order to provide better service to customers with the help of government by providing incentives of tax breaks for up to 10 years to make the upgrading pos sible (Cabinet Secretariat, 2010; Dawa, 2010). Hence, with good reputation and its 5-Stars ranked hotel, Shangri-La has gained the advantage to compete with the hotels in Bhutan. Thus, Shangri-La needs to come out with some new plan to sustain its market position. 5.0 Conclusion In summary, various analyses needed to be considered and examined in the progress of business expansion to the international market. Going international not only mean to explore the new market abroad but it also enable the company to have better understanding on the expansion strategies that needed to adopt in turn to deal with the dilemma that occurred in the international market. Besides, international business can promote faster growth in the country economy due to the entry of foreign direct investment in the country which stimulate the domestic competition in the market and in effect would encourage improvement in the service and product of the company, besides it would help the employment rate of the country as well. Moreover, in order to go for international business, the particular companies need to ensure that the correct strategies are adopted. With the assist of PEST in the expansion of macro environment in a market, the company, and here would be Shangri-La can easily gai n the information of the specific market and taking the next step to invest into the market. Besides, by examining the international consideration, it gives clearer picture on what the company doing in the existing market and how the company give solution against the problem that they faced and yet understand how they enter an international market such as foreign direct investment which adopted by Shangri-La hotel into various countries. Other than that, by using the Ansoffs product-market matrix, it enables the company to make good use of the strategies in order to have a better strategic planning in the expansion of the businesses such as to study on the direction of growth of Shangri-La Company. Lastly, with the analysis of Porters Five Forces, it helps the company to understand the strength and the threat of the market when the foreign company planning to invest into the country. By having all these strategies, the company can have the advantage to globalize and to compete again st the competitors that existed in the market in order to offer better products and services nevertheless gain more profit and attract more customers. In conclusion, all these strategies would benefit and success the companies in doing international business.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Mama Day and Daughters of the Dust :: African American Culture Literature Essays

Mama Day and Daughters of the Dust For emigrants of any country it is difficult to maintain the individual culture of their homeland while assimilating to the ways of the new country they have entered. For slaves of the 19th century, the acculturation process was a necessity. If they did not conform to the Western way of life, they would perish. However for some slaves, their geographic location sequestered them enough from the European worldview that they could continue to practice their own culture and religion. Most of these groups were found off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia, the exact location of two important African-American narratives – Daughters of the Dust and Mama Day. Although the islands did not offer complete sanctuary from the harshness of post-colonial American culture, it did afford the Africans living on those islands more latitude to practice their beliefs. Especially for the younger generations, there was a beckoning from the dominant culture to take part in its opportunities and advantages, which created a drawback for Africans still trying to carve their niche in the Western society. Daughters of the Dust and Mama Day are fictional narratives that vividly recount the experiences of the black slave family during the 1800’s. Although they take different narrative forms, the former as a movie and the latter as a book, there are still several important themes concerning the emerging African-American culture – a way of life that incorporates the native African worldview with the newly acquired American lifestyle – that the two stories address. Although there are differences between the two works, they are really struc tural in nature, such as plot and point of view, and are thus not necessary to address currently. Instead, it is important to focus on the values that dominate the African culture and the attitudes that enhance and interfere with their way of life in Western society. The narratives share two main themes of which all other themes can be derived. One is the struggle between the lifestyles and values of the mainland and the islands and the second is a belief in logic and science versus intuition and African folklore. For both stories the island is an integral part of the story, almost becoming a character unto itself. The nature of an island is such that it has its own personality and dynamic, which is appropriate since it is physically dislocated from the mainstream.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Shakespeares Othello Essay - Honest Iago :: GCSE Coursework Shakespeare Othello

Othello - Honest Iago The most interesting and round character in the tragic play Othello, by William Shakespeare, is "honest" Iago. Through carefully though-out words and actions, Iago manipulates others to do things in which he benefits. Iago is the main driving force in "Othello," pushing several characters towards their tragic end. Iago is not a traditional villain for he plays a unique and complex role. Unlike most villains in tragic plays, evidence of Iago's deception is not clearly visible. Iago is smart and an excellent judge of people and their characters. He uses this keen sense of knowledge to his advantage. For example, Iago knows that Roderigo has feelings for Desdemona and assumes he would do anything to have her as his own. Iago attempts to manipulate Roderigo by saying: It cannot be that Desdemona should long continue her love to the Moor- put money in thy purse- nor he his to her: It is a violent commencement, and thou shalt see and answerable sequestration; put but money in thy purse. [Act I, Scene III]. By playing on Roderigo's hopes, Iago swindles money and jewels from Roderigo, making himself a substantial profit. Iago also says, "Thus do I ever make my fool my purse" [Act I, Scene III] once Roderigo has left. "Honest" Iago cleverly disguises his own goals as Roderigo blindly follows him. Iago continually operates with alterier motives in "Othello." Iago takes advantage of his friendships with Cassio as well as Roderigo. Cassio blindly follows Iago, thinking the entire time that Iago is trying to help him. During this whole time, Iago plans the demise of Cassio, his supposed friend. In order to obtain Cassio's position as lieutenant, Iago convinces Cassio to take another drink, knowing very well that it will make him drunk and disgrace him. Iago obviously tries to tarnish Cassio's   character when he says, "What, man! 'Tis a night of revels: the gallants desire it" [Act II, Scene III]. Iago is able to make Cassio defy his own reasoning and reluctantly take another drink. As a result of his devious scheming, Iago's achieves his goal and Othello terminates Cassio as his lieutenant. Iago successfully manipulates the people around him by building a trust, a trust in which all of Iago's victims believe to be an honest trust. The friendship and honesty Iago falsely imposes upon Othello makes it easy for Othello to never imagine the possibility that Iago has evil motives. Othello holds Iago as his close friend and advisor. He believes Iago to be a person, "of exceeding honesty, [who] knows all qualities,

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Chaucers Canterbury Tales Essay - Dominance and Control in the Wife of

Dominance and Control in Chaucer's The Wife of Bath's Tale      Ã‚   The Wife of Bath, the main character in Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Wife of Bath's Tale" recognizes dominance over her husband as the main purpose of her life and her story.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Wife of Bath is a controlling and headstrong woman.   She craves dominance over her husbands.   She believes that, in order to be her husband, the man must be subservient and that she is the head of the household.   Even thought she has been married five times, she has never let the man hold the upper hand.   Out of the five, "three were good husbands, two of them were bad" (Chaucer 224).   She was first married at the age of twelve and is now forty years old.   To be married at such a young age, one can only imagine that the marriage was either arranged for money or for a title.   The Wife of Bath recognizes that the key to survival for a fourteenth century woman is marriage, as shown in her having had five husbands and being married at the age of twelve.   The Wife of Bath is also not what a wife should be.   She torments her husbands by denying them sex until she gets what she wants, which is land and money.   When she does sleep with t hem, it always means "nothing," but for the older husbands it means their lives (Chaucer 224).   The Wife of Bath, in her mind, has the right to deny sex because it is she who hold the "'power of his body' not he" (Chaucer 223).   She even proudly admits that she had married men for their money and driven them to their end by her desire for sex.   She prays for Jesus to send men "who are meek and young and spirited in bed" (Chaucer 250).   The Wife of Bath will stop at nothing to get what she wants because dominance is what she lives for.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ... Chaucer does not believe that it is right for the Wife of Bath to use her sexuality as a tool to get what she wants.   He recognizes there are other options of gaining power because he has the hag use her intelligence to gain control over the Knight.   Feminine wiles are expected of women, just as men play their own games.   "The Wife of Bath's Tale" is a humorous and ironic tale.   The Knight supplies this irony and the Wife of Bath supplies the humor be gaining control of men half her age.   The dominance and control that the Wife of Bath strives for is the theme of her life and of Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Wife of Bath's Tale."    Works Cited Chaucer, Geoffrey.   "The Prologue of the Wife of Bath's Tale."   Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985. Plucknett, Theodore F.T.   A Concise History of the Common Law, 5th Ed.   London: Butterworth, 1956.  Ã‚  Ã‚  

Samsung Marketing Plan

Samsung Background Samsung is a Korean company that has risen to prominence in many fields over the years. The size and the scope of the company is almost unimaginable, as they are one of the largest and most diverse companies in the world. While the company is mostly known for their technology division (cell phones, radios, MP3 players, computer screens, and the like) they have many other divisions as well. The company has expanded from a humble storefront launched in the late 1930s to the largest company in Korea and the second largest company in the world.Samsung Group, was founded in 1938 by Byung-Chull Lee, a celebrated Korean entrepreneur. Lee started a small trading company with a $2,000 nest egg and 40 employees. He called it Samsung, which means ‘three stars' in Korean. The company enjoyed moderate growth before the Communist invasion in 1950 forced Lee to abandon his operations in Seoul. Lee established a sugar refinery in 1953, a move that was criticized at the time because sugar could be easily obtained through American aid.But for Lee, the act was important because it was the first manufacturing facility built in South Korea after the Korean War. From sugar, wool, and other commodity businesses, Lee moved into heavier manufacturing. The company prospered under Lee's philosophy of making Samsung the leader in each industry he entered. In addition to the electronics division, which is the most profitable and successful one in the world, the company also has forayed into finance, chemicals, retail, and straight-up entertainment – all with great degrees of success.The company employs many of South Korea's finest employees, including many with PHD level education. This is not surprising, seeing as the company's assets total somewhere around $300 billion. The company has some of the most loyal employees around and many work every day – that means no holiday time off or weekends — both because they want to and it is expected. Sa msung as A Learning Organization A learning organization have five component of knowledge management, there are : Culture and Trust; Knowledge Worker; Supporting Facilities;

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Based on George Parks

Based on George Parks (2007) December article for Correction Today, the application of Relapse Prevention Therapy (RPT) as a primary cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in corrections and recidivism . He recognizes that RP affords the implementation of evidenced based interventions in corrections but requires further refinement if it is to be expanded from its current application in offender programming. This would require further testing of RP programs and more importantly, a philosophical shift in criminal programs for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and social reintegration. Criminality is an issue that is continuing concern of any society. Considering the evidence suggesting the increase in repeat offenders and the degree of their crime, the demand to develop effective recidivism programs is well justified. Parks (2007) discusses RPT clearly and provides significant information regarding its application prevailing principles and practices in its application. However, though his discussion on the impact of RPT and related CBT based interventions, he does not provide statistical or actual performance evidence. Though this does not imply that his opinion is less valid, the urgency and importance of the issue would have been better communicated with the presentation of such data. Parks himself recognizes the need for new perspectives and insights to the issue of not only corrections and recidivism but also corrections and social support for offenders. There have been a numbers of suggestions to address the issue including the contradictions to RPT such as the increase in punitive measures for offenders. In the case of restorative justice programs, there has been a similar increase in the support for their application but there has been hesitation on their full implementation because of perceived risks and the management participation on inmates. RPT has an advantage over other perspectives since there is already substantial evidence of its effectivity and relatively has lower risks since people involved in the interventions are limited to offenders’ corrections and parole officers. The research’s orientation reflects a psychological perspective as evidenced by the focus on CBT approaches. It should be noted that orientation does not exclude other orientations, as it is apparent form Park’s discussion that he recognizes the value of various perspectives in the development of recidivism programs. For example, he sites that crime cycles should be studied based on the conditions that create offense scenarios which include social, political and criminological perspectives or orientations. The theoretical framework utilized by Park combines sociology and psychology. The latter is apparent in the programs the areas of correction he sees the potential for the application for RPT. This puts an emphasis on psychological strategies, indicated by his recommendation of CBT and CBT-based programs including RPT as well as Helen Annis’s structured relapse prevention (SRP). However, the actual intervention proposed utilizes sociological frameworks for implementation. He believes that there is significant change that offenders will be able to reform if they are able to learn the impact of their actions, their responsibility for it and the need for criminal justice programs to apply penalties for those who offend them. Park’s orientation also indicates his support for sociogenic collaborative programs in corrections and criminal recidivism. Park’s theoretical perspective and research orientation are consistent with each other. Like any other author or researcher, his research orientation is based on the theoretical perspective he employs in developing the study. Thus, the assumption that the researcher employs for the research are reflected in the orientation of the study, the way the collaborations for the program are constructed or are to operate and the determination of the desired outcomes of the programs. In the same way, an insight to the theoretical perspective of the author allows credible estimates to how the research will approach he subject matter. The literature review completed by Park and his opinion of them reflect his theoretical perspective and research orientation. In particular, his citation of the works of Annis, David Wexler, James McGuire, John A. Cunningham , Edward Zamble and of course the proponent of RPT, G. Alan Marlatts. Though Park does not make any distinct or overt contrary position against any research mentioned or otherwise in his studies, he constantly reiterates his belief of the need for further studies before extensive application of RPT can be done. One point he points out is the lack of large-scale cohort studies to support the intensified application of RPT in recidivism. As previously mentioned, one of the limitations of park’s study is the lack of quantitative data. Though considering the extent of the assessment he made of the existing literature, there is sufficient corroboration for the regard he has for RPT, CBT-based programs and the existing researches for the subject. Park’s analysis of the research and its related issues and concerns reflects his own extensive research and interest in the issue. His insights and conclusions are not surprising because similar conclusions about corrections, rehabilitation and recidivism are reflected in other researches. However, unlike some opinions on the issue, Park believes that offenders should be given allow the opportunities for rehabilitation and reintegration. His sentiment is not just for humanitarian reasons but also recognized that the success of such interventions will reduce demands for correction facilities and programs. Written for popular readership, the research is quiet effective in delivering the need for correction and rehabilitation programs for offenders that will allow them to become productive and law-abiding members of society. Considering this, then Park’s avoidance of statistical or technical terms in RPT or CBT may be deliberate so as not to overwhelm his audience. Furthermore, this supports his objective of communicating the issue as social concern that needs collaborations of various social institutions as well as the public. The construction of Park’s arguments first highlights the significance of RPT in criminal justice systems then reflects the importance of the issue in society and among individual members of it. He points out that the objective of any criminal justice system is should go beyond apprehending and punishing offenders and extends to efforts that offenders are able to reform and become productive members of society. He then enumerates the requirements for the development of RPT programs that support these objectives and the insights that can be developed from existing research. In this article, Park contributes to readers’ understanding of the developing issue in corrections and recidivism, the perspective or researches being developed regarding it, and the potential of utilizing CBT-based interventions such as RPT. It highlights the need to review the relevance of programs and to streamline strategies to maximize the resources of criminal justice programs. There is also the realization of the increasing emphasis in rehabilitation of offenders instead of punitive measures which in turn reflects changes in social perspectives on criminality and corrections management. Park’s research is to be commended in its effort to reach a wider audience for an issue that has often been considered as a concern exclusively to the criminal justice field. Furthermore, his emphasis on the development of research, testing and collaborative programs lend a strong foundation as well as frameworks for the development of programs and interventions. The issue of recidivism, crime and rehabilitation is presented as in issue that affects all member of society not only offenders or their victims. In conclusion, Park’s work should be considered as an important foundation for further researchers on the topic and provides ample foundation for the analysis and development of RPT applications in criminal justice programs. REFERENCE Parks, George A. (2007). New approaches to using relapse prevention therapy in the criminal justice system. Corrections Today 69(6) December: 46(4)

Decision making Essay

The first skill set is learning how to use the four primary ethical perspectives that are used in decision making. These perspectives are called the Four Ethical Lenses. The second skill is learning to use a practical and repeatable decision-making method called the Baird Decision Model. As we become adults, one of our primary responsibilities is to decide what values and ethical priorities are the most important to us. The ethical game simulation assist with that. Mysterious Blogger and Unveiled I. D. The ethical issues that were addressed in these simulations were religion and violation of company policies. In the mysterious blogger simulation an employee hacked another employee’s personal PC only to find that the other employee was blogging about the company. Which was in violation of the company’s policy. In the unveiled I. D simulation an employee, which is a woman has issues taking a photo for an ID because it is against her religion to show her face unless amongst other women only. The decisions making steps I took to resolve these dilemmas was the being reasonable lens trying to consider what is good, fair, true, and virtuous. I also used the responsible lens trying to make an ethical choice based on my analysis. The ethical perspectives that influenced my decision making was Being Attentive: Collect the facts and notice what’s being said. Being Intelligent: Find the underlying issue and determine who’s really involved. Being Reasonable: Use the lenses to consider what is good, what is true, what is fair, and what is virtuous. Being Responsible: Make an ethical choice based on your analysis. Being Reflective: Defend your choice with careful thought and observe the aftermath closely. The way these ethical perspectives influenced my decisions was through personal and community values. Trying to understand and asses the situations, while also being fair and unbiased, so that all can feel addressed and handled in the correct manner. The way concepts from the simulation relate to the workplace is very simple and straight forward. The concepts helps one to understand the situation by analyzing and placing it in a particular lens. By doing this one has a better grasp on how to handle and resolve the issues that may take place. When in the workplace there are different races, genders and religions and these simulations touch base on in-depth issues that has definitely arose in the business environment. Having a clear process in place for evaluating exceptions ensures that all are treated equally, including the least advantaged. Conclusion With time and practice, the conflicts inherent in moral dilemmas can become opportunities for developing your ethical self. When you come across difference, remember that we all have our chosen lens. â€Å"Arguments over the â€Å"right thing to do† often stem from differing definitions of what actions are ethical† (ethicsgame. 2013). Knowing your ethical lens and how it effects ones decision making only enhances an individual’s work ethic, morals and decision making in one’s personal life.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Marriage essays

Marriage essays Marriage is a complicated institution. It is a contract for a relationship, which in the past has often been ending up in a divorce. This is different from other decades. In the United States between forty and fifty percent of Americans will end up divorcing (Crawford People marry each other for love most of the time; they want to share a life together. But feelings change, families change, and sometimes these changes are irreconcilable. The difference from forty years ago and today is that, now people are getting divorced for all kinds of different reasons that did not exist before. One important example is the change in womens independence. Women are a lot more independent, and willing to get divorced if they feel they have to. Men are also more often seen performing other roles, that were once only womens. Sometimes they choose to go on alone, though men are more likely to have a more difficult adjustment to divorce than do women (Crawford People believe that a marriage becomes happier when children come, but a lot of the conflicts that lead to the failure of the contract happen after the honeymoon period, which usually ends right after the first childs birth. The marriage usually demands more work, more responsibilities, and requires more emotional assets. The reasons for the disagreements are different for every couple, but most of them occur because women end up having to perform more roles than men, and end up sometimes having no time to talk to their husbands, or are only more stressed. M...

Will new machines perk up coffee sales essays

Will new machines perk up coffee sales essays 1. Challenges that Kraft and other coffee sellers face are numerous in terms of competition and trends. Brand-loyal premium coffee drinkers are flocking to Starbucks, which expects to achieve a net revenue growth of 20% in fiscal 2005 . In the supermarket, sales are being taken not only by lower-priced private label brands but also by upscale whole-bean and ground packaged coffee. Tea accounts for an approximate 38% share of overall coffee/tea dollar sales. The coffee market in the US has been slow growing. Between 2002 and 2003, coffee consumption decreased from 3.2 to 3.0 cups per day. 2. Developing their own brewing machines will provide a mechanism which will allow Kraft to sell the coffee pods used in those machines. Since Krafts is a closed system, users will be forced to buy only the pods manufactured by Kraft. 3. Krafts business model for its Tassimo coffeemaker is very similar to HPs model for its printers and cartridges. Both products utilize closed systems. Refills for both products are sold by the manufacturer and the machines wont work with refills that arent designed for the specific machine. If the consumer wants the HP refill or the Tassimo refill, he or she must pay the price. From a business perspective, this creates long-term financial relationships with the customer and maximizes profitability of the organization. This is evidenced by the fact that the machine itself is distributed by Braun (a division of Gillette) while the T-discs are manufactured and distributed by Kraft. It prevents the use of competitors pods (or cartridges), including those offered by low-priced private label brands. While remanufactured cartridges and refill kits are available for HPs printers, consumers report problems with print quality and difficulty refilling the cartridges. From a consumer perspective this means several things, not the least of which is c ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Get Copies of Birth, Marriage and Death Certificates

Get Copies of Birth, Marriage and Death Certificates Vital records- birth certificates, marriage certificates, death certificates, and divorce decrees- are one of the best resources to help build a family tree.  Once you determine the state where the birth, death, marriage or divorce occurred, select the state from the list below to learn how to get a certified copy of the vital record or where to find free vital records online.   Where to Find U.S. Vital Records A AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansas C CaliforniaCanal ZoneColoradoConnecticut D DelawareDistrict of Columbia F Florida G Georgia H Hawaii I IdahoIllinoisIndianaIowa K KansasKentucky L Louisianna M MaineMarylandMassachusettesMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontana N NebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNew York CityNorth CarolinaNorth Dakota O OhioOklahomaOregon P PennsylvaniaPuerto Rico R Rhode Island S South CarolinaSouth Dakota T TennesseTexas U Utah V VermontVirginiaVirgin Islands W WashingtonWest VirginaWisconsinWyoming Vital records  are one of the best resources for helping you to build your family tree due to their: Completeness- Vital records usually cover a large percentage of the population and include a wide variety of information for linking families.Reliability- Because they are usually created close to the time of the event by someone with personal knowledge of the facts and because most governments have measures in place to try and ensure their accuracy, vital records are a fairly reliable form of genealogical information.Availability- Since they are official documents,  governments have made an effort to preserve vital records with newer records being found in local government offices and older records residing in a variety of record repositories and archives. Why Vital Records May Not Be  Available In the United States, the responsibility for registering vital events is left to the individual states.  Many states, however, did not require birth, death or marriage records to be registered until late into the 1800s, and in some cases not until the early to mid-1900s. While some New England states kept town and county records as early as the 1600s, other states such as Pennsylvania and South Carolina didnt require birth registration until 1906 and 1913, respectively.  Even after registration was required by law, not all  births, marriages and deaths were reported- the  compliance rate may have been as low as 50-60% in earlier years, depending upon the time and place. People living in rural areas often found it an inconvenience to take a day from work to travel many miles to the local registrar. Some people were suspicious of the governments reasons for wanting such information and simply refused to register. Others may have registered the birth of one child, but not others . Registration of births, marriages,  and deaths is much more accepted today, however, with current rates of registration closer to 90-95%. Marriage records, unlike birth and death records, can also usually be found at the county level, and are often available from the date the county was organized (going back into the 1700s in some instances). In some areas, marriage records may also be found at the town level (e.g. New England), the city level (e.g. NYC) or the parish level (e.g. Louisiana).

Essay on Entrepreneurship in the Global Environment

Essay on Entrepreneurship in the Global Environment Essay on Entrepreneurship in the Global Environment Essay on Entrepreneurship in the Global EnvironmentBasing on Stokes, Wilson and Mador (2010), and Deakings and Freel (2009), Entrepreneurship as the process of organizing the production of goods and services to meet the constantly renewed demand and receive profit, as well as a function of managing this process factually represents the force of creative destruction that acts in the market and in production creating at the same time new products and business models. In this regard we find the most appropriate American economist Joseph Schumpeter’s definition of an entrepreneur as a person who is trying to turn a new idea or invention into a successful innovation (Zimmerer and Scarborough, 2005). Indeed, a good barometer of the entrepreneurial skills of a manager is one’s reaction to the new strategic possibilities, the way one perceives innovations of other companies, one’s actions to improve the organization’s performance. Managers endowed with the talent of entrepreneurship are usually the pioneers who quickly perceive all the innovations, take a certain share of risk, and initiate radically new strategies. Further in this paper, we will discuss the entrepreneurial skills of the two prominent representatives of this class Baron Marcel Bich, the founder of the brands Bic and Cricket, the pioneer of the market of disposable items of daily use, and Akio Morita, the founder of the Sony Corporation, one of the leaders of innovation in the electronics market.Marcel Bich profileRelying on Landrum’s (1993) research, Marcel Bich’s (1914-1994) career in manufacturing pens began in 1939 as he took the position of an executive sales manager at Stephens, the largest French company in this segment and the main competitor to Waterman in France, but was interrupted by the war. After its end in 1945, Bich had to fight for his well-being, and at the time together with his friend Edouard Buffard they spent their last $1000 to buy the ru ndown premises in Clichy, where they started producing ink reservoirs for ballpoint pens. Despite huge demand, ballpoint pen was an expensive and unreliable novelty, and that experience made Baron Marcel Bich think about creating cheap disposable pens. Therefore, the next four years he spent developing the first Bic pen improving its functionality and calculating the value of the product that would not make its owner feel sorry to throw it away (Landrum, 1993).In 1950, Marcel Bich for the first time proposed the sample to six companies for whom he produced ink reservoirs. One of these companies was a major and respected US firm Waterman, which Bich later acquired. He gave these firms the opportunity to be the first to introduce his idea, paying his company only the royalty but they refused to take risks saying that he did not understand the specificities of the complex global distribution system. Bich had to choose one of three options: to forget about his idea; to produce the produ ct on his own and sell it through small distributors; or start his own company to produce pens and arrange his own distribution system. As a true entrepreneur, Marcel Bich decided to create his own business, and since then the way people write in the world changed forever.Having set the price for a disposable ballpoint pen at 29 cents, while the prices for pens of the rival firms ranged between $9 and $12.95, the company achieved astonishing sales in the first 3 years distributing 200,000-250,000 pens per day. By the mid-1960’s Bich was producing more than a billion pens a year, and managed to reduce safely their price to 10 cents. Acquisition of Biro-Swan, Bellograf and Waterman Pen helped the company to reach the British, Australian, New Zealand, Canadian, and American markets where Bich introduced his extensive distribution network. For example, in the United States, he created 300,000 retail outlets, representing 93% of all retail sales in the US, and thus captured 60% of the market in the United States (Landrum, 1993).Later, Marcel Bich extended his success in pens to lighters and shavers, leaving behind in this segment such large competitors as Gillette, and now is trying to introduce a one-off perfumes. Today, Societe Bic sells over three billion ballpoint pens a year (one million per day in the United States alone) and dominates the market for pens and lighters in most countries of the world (BIC Official Website, 2014).Akio Morita profileThe man of the same era, Akio Morita (1921-1999), a brilliant representative of a completely different industry and culture of doing business, who nevertheless also stands at the origin of a large innovation. Studying electronics from an early age, Morita wanted to establish a company that would prove it belonged to firms that create innovative products. In 1947, Ibuka, Maeda and Akio Morita became partners and founded the Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation (SONY since 1958) with a capital of $500 (Morita, 1986). Their first product was a device for cooking rice. They produced one hundred pieces but did not sell a single one. A similar case was their first Japanese tape recorder (Collins and Porras, 2004). The company was close to bankruptcy, and the reason was that they knew how to design and manufacture products, but had no idea how to sell it. And here is when Akio Morita’s entrepreneurial skills revealed themselves.Having taken over the department of foreign trade and marketing at Sony, Morita personally did not invent a single product. His contribution was the innovative market strategy and discovering the potential market opportunities. Thus, Morita was an advocate for Sony’s pocket-sized radio (the first to be fully transistorized), the first transistor television in the world, the first home video recorder, and surely, the world’s first portable music player Walkman introduced in 1979 (Collins and Porras, 2004). With 75 different versions and mor e than 20 million users, the Walkman became one of the most famous products of the company, despite the fact that when the company’s engineers conducted the first research, they concluded that people would not buy this device because it lacked recording function and just played music (Morita, 1986; Collins and Porras, 2004). Intuition told Akio Morita that his product would be in demand. Moreover, his successful marketing of the Walkman managed to introduce the idea of â€Å"Japaneseness† into the global culture, which since then became synonymous with product miniaturization and application of latest technologies (Collins and Porras, 2004).Since 1960, Sony has been the first to implement new ideas in virtually every segment of the consumer electronics market. This commitment to innovation made Sony the most innovative company for three decades from the 50’s to the 70’s (Collins and Porras, 2004). Following the vision of Akio Morita, the company was also aggressively expanding into the new markets. As a result, Sony annual income increased from $2.5 million in 1955 to $128.36 billion in 2014. In 2012, Sony was ranked 87th on the Fortune Global 500 List, and the variety of marketing efforts it engages make it one of the worlds largest and most pervasive corporations of all time (Sony Official Website, 2014).Rationalization of choiceBoth Akio Morita and Marcel Bich are clearly the examples of outstanding entrepreneurial skills and are worthy of recognition. Being farsighted innovators in their industries, they made their companies leaders in the market segment.Thus, Marcel Bich is more than anyone responsible for the emergence of disposable culture. His purposeful ingenuity changed the spending habits of society and the way people use writing instruments, lighters and safety razors worldwide. His creative destruction of static markets was a brilliant innovation. Similar to BIC, Sony traditionally has been remarkable for establishing i ts own in-house standards for innovation in recording and storage rather than taking on those of other producers and standards agencies. Sony (alone and with partners) has brought in several of the most used recording formats such as floppy disk, Compact Disc, and Blu-ray Disc.Precisely identifying the current needs of society, Akio Morita and Marcel Bich ignored the establishment in their quest for new and better ways. Different in their specificity, these two leaders were similar in their mentality: intuition relied on striving to achieve goals at any cost, and destruction of old patterns were part of the way to success. The deeper analysis and comparison of their management approaches are presented below.Essay on Entrepreneurship in the Global Environment  part 2

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Essay on Women and Men in the US

Essay on Women and Men in the US Essay on Women and Men in the US Example essay: Major issues facing women and men in the U.S. today There are very many issues that are facing both men and women in the U.s today. The effects are far reaching although others do not have very significant outcomes. Gender disparity is mong the major issues that are known to affect people in the U.S. The population in the United States has been established to be having many women than men. However, this is not depicted in the public area. The Supreme Court for instance has a higher male population than women. The country? presidents from Regan to Obama have tried to eliminate this disparity by making special appointments of females judges into the Supreme Court. Another issue that is facing men and women in the U.S is the one that pertains to abortion. Facts, information and statistics about abortion and pregnancy in the U.S place a lot of evidence on teens being the most affected. There have been increased cases of sexual assault, rape, prostitution and domestic violence. In one way or another, either a man or a woman is being victimized. In many occasions, it is women who fall victim due to the notion by the society that they are a weaker sex. There are facts, statistics and stories that surround abuse and survival together with the appropriate ways that can be adopted to reduce these forms of abuse. In all creations, all people seek for love and intimacy. Yet, it is becoming evident that neither of them is a certain thing. People are different; some seek for soothe and stability while others have the desire for excitement and experimentation. As humans, we may know one another, but it is also a fact that it takes two to tangle. Currently, the issues that pertain to women? reproductive rights and the diverse forms of contraception are widely and legally accessible to all women in the U.S. Other issues that have been seen to affect people in the U.S are those that are linked to pay equity, healthcare, and leadership, feeding habits, obesity and citizenship. All these factors have a way in which they affect the people. What is important though is how the society approaches and tries to find solutions towards solving them in a more amicable manner. I would say that there are many problems that face men and women in the United States just like any other country of the world whether developed or not developed. In comparison to the less developed countries and more specifically those that are non-democratic, America is more dwarfed in the way her people are faced with the problems. Some of the problems are as a result of the religious doctrines that permeate abuse and pose subservient regulations on those who are linked to social problems. Sometimes, it becomes very hard to contemplate on the traditional, feminist issues and think of obtaining a female president in the U.S unless more women and men start cherishing diplomacy endowed with more actions and soft power. Such issues can also be overcome if more women get involved in business activities and political positions so that their voices, votes and plans can be felt. An opinion I have held over time now is that gender issues will always continue to be factors in social interactions. This is due to the loopholes that the society has allowed to prevail. For instance, the feminist issues that are still being talked about in the current society are majorly applicable to those who are aware and relish freedom. It is also appropriate for those who want a gentler and comfortable society. Although the U.S is in pursuit of these key factors, it is none the less faced with issues of gender disparity and discrimination. To make sure that gender issues are eliminated, then it is imperative that all of us exert positive influences that will terminate the undercutting on one another. It is also very vital that the society learns to have faith on one another. It should also develop an innate belief in the ability of women to lead in a diligent way. The society should also make sure that it rises up an entity and extends its hand throughout the aspects of develo pment in the spirit of change that will impact positively on the lives of our sisters, not only in the United States but also to the rest of the world. At you can easily buy essay online on Women and Men related topics. Our custom essay writing company will help with writing your essay, term paper or research paper on any topic.

IngramSpark Review Dont Use Until You Read This + PROMO CODE!

IngramSpark Review Dont Use Until You Read This + PROMO CODE! IngramSpark Review: Don't Use Until You Read This + PROMO CODE! IngramSpark, KDP Print, Lulu, BookBaby - there is no shortage of companies out there promising to help you publish and sell your print books and ebooks. Luckily, if you’re struggling over which platform to use, you’re in the company of thousands of other authors who have been in your shoes and can provide some guidance.That’s exactly why we’re here, to provide you with a breakdown, review, manual - and a promo code! - for one of the most popular platforms out there: IngramSpark.What is IngramSpark?What is the Best Service for Print on Demand Books? Read post As we mentioned, there are other POD platforms worth your consideration - such as KDP Print (good for Amazon distribution), Blurb (good for books with varied visual components), BookBaby (good for customer support), or Draft2Digital Print (still in beta but the rumors so far are promising). For a comprehensive breakdown of the top print on demand services for books - and to see actual print copies from each printer - check out this comprehensive POD post. Alright, if you’ve decided that IngramSpark is the self-publishing platform you want to put a ring on, your next move will be, well, doing just that. Below is a simple yet thorough guide to publishing via IngramSpark. Free promo code for IngramSpark's setup fee - and IngramSpark review!  Ã°Å¸â€œÅ¡ How to use IngramSparkIf your first instinct when signing up for any kind of fee-based service is to scour the internet for discount coupons, then you’re in luck - because we’ve got one for you! Just for reading this post, you get a 50% discount off IngramSpark’s $49 print and ebook title setup fee. All you have to do is enter this case-sensitive IngramSpark promo code: EXPERT. (Don’t worry, we’ll post another reminder about this coupon a little further down).Onto the publishing now. Below, we’ll break down the seven steps to publishing with IngramSpark. These steps may vary for you based on whether you’re going with print copies, ebooks, or both. In hopes of covering all the bases, we will outline the steps for an author who’s publishing both print and ebook copies of their book.Of course, the pre-first step is actually signing up for IngramSpark, which you can do here: 1: A bout Your BookNext up, it’s time to deliver the goods: the manuscript you’ve worked hard on perfecting and the book cover that will do that manuscript proud! Both must be uploaded as PDFs.After you upload your files, IngramSpark will scan both the interior and exterior files for any errors. If it spots some, it will let you know and give you the choice to either a) fix the issues before you proceed with the process, or b) if you’re confident with your files, ignore IngramSpark’s alerts and continue as is.And that’s it! From here, you can decide how you want to market and sell your book. Our final recommendation is that, before distributing any print copies of your book, you first order a proof copy to ensure it looks good and there are no strange sizing inconsistencies.IngramSpark Promo CodeBefore we go, we wanted to quickly remind you about the IngramSpark promo code for Reedsy community members! When it comes time to pay your book’s $49 se tup fee, use the following code for a 50% discount: EXPERT - and yes, this code is case sensitive!Have you published through IngramSpark? What was your experience like? Or maybe you’re still on the fence and have some lingering question about IngramSpark - or other popular publishing options out there. Feel free to leave any thoughts or questions in the comments below!

Saturday, October 19, 2019

HR Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 3

HR - Essay Example Today, as compared to earlier period, line managers are being held more responsible and accountable for numerous functions in HRD. Contemporary human resource literature shows how today’s line managers are assuming important role specifically in encouraging employee learning and development (Siugzdiniene, 2008). Although this assumption remains theoretical and less data exists on implementation procedure, the truth of the matter is that line managers’ role in HRD functions is increasingly becoming real and undisputed fact. Two unique features of the modern HRD approach exists that is: the devolution of HRD practices to line managers and the integration of HRD with the overall business strategy sometimes referred to as Strategic Human Resource Development-SHRD (Siugzdiniene 2008). The major role of SHRD has evolved to constitute the creation of strong linkages with the organizations strategic goals and establishment of learning environment coupled with structural design, which in turn is facilitated to promote learning with sole aim of improving organization’s performance (Siugzdiniene 2008). Further, SHRD involves integrating HRD functions with objectives of the business. The essence of devolving HRD functions and practices to line managers has evolved as one of the enabling element of SHRD system and the general conviction is that line managers possess the ability to drive HRD policies and practices (Siugzdiniene 2008). Starting in the early days of1990s, it became clear that the traditional role of human resource could not dictate the events of the future and therefore need arose to re-align human resource functions to the new emerging elements in the organization. Such new emerging elements included culture, behavior, motivation, and performance (Gratton 1999). Therefore, there was a gradual shift from human resource concentration on capital

Analysis of the Public Policy Process of the United States Governance Essay

Analysis of the Public Policy Process of the United States Governance System - Essay Example lex for countries to make and implement foreign policy since increased globalisation has made the distinction between domestic and foreign policy rather blurred (Russell, 2000). What is more, in current times, even domestic decisions by cross-border and global effects. A good illustration of this assertion is the 2008 global financial crisis in which local decisions by states affected the wider globe. Nonetheless, it is still of great importance to learn and understand how each country makes its foreign policy and to appreciate how democratic these processes are. In the United States, the Constitution is the foundation of the foreign policy, especially, the making and the implementation of these policies. However, since historical times, foreign policy and constitutional experts have felt that the constitution has been a source of intrigues and struggles between the executive and the Congress with regards to the making of foreign policy in the U.S. Comparatively, the US has been found to apply a rather cumbersome process in making its foreign policy compared to those of other democracies such as Europe states. Although the provisions and safeguards entrenched in the US Constitutions are well intentioned and offer checks to tyrannical tendencies, they have often been the causes of struggles and tension between the executive and the legislature (Russell, 2000). Thus, these safeguards have made it rather difficult to formulate and implement foreign policy besides creating uncertainty on what the policies actually are. Consequent to this lack of clarity, foreign governments and interest groups have exploitatively pressured the US’s foreign policy for own benefits. Due to the roles of the executive and the legislature in foreign policy formulation and implementation, it becomes rather difficult to recognise and discern the main actors of foreign policy in the U.S (Russell, 2000). In the US, just like in most other countries, the three arms of the government; the

Friday, October 18, 2019

The Business Strategies of Google Inc and Its Effects on the Business Essay - 2

The Business Strategies of Google Inc and Its Effects on the Business and the Industry - Essay Example This paper illustrates that a research study conducted by Morgan Stanley pegs the total number of internet users at about 1.8 billion as of the year 2009. The number is expected to grow by about 13 percent annually on a year on year basis. The report also states that approximately 18.8 thousand minutes was spent on internet browsing by ‘netizens’ across the world. Geographically China followed by USA and India have the largest number of active internet users with the numbers growing geometrically over the years. The analysis of the strategic framework of an organization can be done by using the framework of the Generic model proposed by Michael Porter. The model states that a firm can pursue four strategies that include overall cost leadership, focus, differentiation, and differentiation focus strategies. Depending on the business and the market environment a firm can either chose one strategy or a combination of these strategies. Overall cost leadership strategy involve s a strategic framework in which a business organization lowers its cost of operations and uses the cost benefits to sell products at lower prices than their competitors. Business organizations using a differentiation strategy provide a unique product or service offering that is unmatched by the competitors in the industry segment. Firms using such a strategy normally charge a premium for their uniqueness in the product or service offering and generate their core competence based on their innovations. Focus strategy involves targeting a very core and niche consumer segment and providing services that tend to cater to the very specific needs of the customers.

Data Mining in Airlines - NOTE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Data Mining in Airlines - NOTE - Essay Example Among the diverse transportation security parts, airport security remains the most contentious because it is vastly invested however it raises concerns. A conceptual connection to the word â€Å"security† divulges several aspects of AIP security initiatives supported through government funding. Results of the study support theoretical framework that two levels exist that the influence the distribution of grants in transportation security, and they include environmental changes in macro level as well as project features in micro level. Moreover, analysis points out that 9/11 events and the economic crisis in 2008 greatly affected the provision of grants associated with security and all grants in various ways (Wang, Andoh-Baidoo & Sun, 2014). The main weakness in the analysis of the study is that it is restrained by the variable choices because of secondary data. For instance, airport region and type are the only two variables describing project characteristics that only approxi mately indicate location and scope. Moreover, FAA discloses only financed AIP projects, increasing the difficulty of investigating factors that influence awarding of grants. Despite the weaknesses, the study findings still generate some significant implications to both practitioners and researchers. It shows that the investment in transportation security positively responds to terrorist attacks like 9/11 although this is not the case with economic events like the 2008 economic crisis (Wang, Andoh-Baidoo & Sun, 2014). The study focusses on customer behavior and firms developing permanent relationships with customer (Liou, 2009). The study tries to solve the problem of forecasting behavior to help firms minimize loss of existing customers by vigorously creating an enduring relationship with customers (Liou, 2009). The paper uses factor analysis; as well, it introduces Variable Consistency

The Vietnam War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Vietnam War - Essay Example The Vietnam War was the long-drawn-out clash between pro-self-government forces endeavoring to amalgamate the nation of Vietnam under a communist administration and the United States, with the assistance of the Southern Vietnamese, struggling to thwart the blowout of communism. Involved in a conflict that many regarded as having no way for victory, U.S. leaders suffered the loss of the American community's cooperation for the war. From the time when the war ended, the Vietnam War has turned out to be a point of reference for what one should not do in all forthcoming U.S. external battles. The Vietnam War was an era during the Cold War period of great military divergence that happened in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos and lasted from 1955 to the plummet of Saigon in 1975. This war came after the First Indochina War. It was a fight between North Vietnam, reinforced by its communist allies, and the administration of South Vietnam, where the United States and other anti-communist nations reinforced it. Like many wars fought during this time, the reason for it was mainly the division of a desire for communism, and the desire for democracy. It was known to be a war much â€Å"tougher than-and different from-World War II and Korea.† The foremost military establishments tangled in the conflict were the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, also known as ARVN and the U.S. military on one side, and the Vietnam People's Army or VPA also known as the North Vietnamese Army or NVA), and the Viet Cong, or National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF), a communist paramilitary group in South Vietnam, on the other side. There had been a lot of hostility in Vietnam for a long period of time before the Vietnam War started. The Vietnamese people had undergone suffering from the French colonial ruling for almost sixty long years when eventually, Japan conquered parts of Vietnam in 1940. It was a year later when Vietnam had two external supremacies dominating them, that communist Vietnamese avant-garde leader Ho Chi Minh came to Vietnam in return after expending roughly three decades travelling the world. Once Ho Chi Minh was now back in Vietnam, he started centers of operations in a cave in the northern part of Vietnam and founded the Viet Minh, whose purpose was to divest Vietnam from the Japanese and French inhabitants. Having increased support for their goal in Northern Vietnam, the Viet Minh proclaimed the formation of a self-governing Vietnam with a new administration named the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the September of 1945. However, the French colonists were not disposed to hand over the ir colony so effortlessly and fought back. For many years, Ho Chi Minh had endeavored to ingratiate the United States to back him up as opposed to the French, such as supplying the United States with military intellect concerning the Japanese throughout World War II. Notwithstanding this assistance, the United States was completely devoted to their Cold War external policy of suppression, which meant averting the increasing spread of Communism. Ho Chi Minh, aware of this, did not want to draw the United States into the conflict. The Americans, though, could not allow their client state to fall and the road to war began. (Wiest 16) The â€Å"domino theory† of the United States, which specified that if one nation in

Media Journal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 4

Media Journal - Essay Example in her Ballet class and she often hears them pass weird remarks about themselves such as their skin is blemished or with pimples or that they had had a fat day. Some of them went to the extent of saying that they looked disgusting. Being a blogger herself, Julia brought this problem to the attention of other bloggers by starting an online petition drive. Julia took it a step further by taking the Seventeen Magazine to school and showing it to many of the kids, both boys and girls and asked them if they agreed with the petition where she asked the Seventeen Magazine to â€Å"commit to printing one unaltered — real — photo spread per month.† (Julia Bluhm, 2012) Most of them agreed with it and signed the petition. In fact, the total was a staggering 46,000 people. Julia, with the help of her mother and a few friends visited the Seventeen Magazine office and held a demonstration outside. Ann Shoket, the editor -in - chief invited them inside and both parties thrashed out the problem together. Even though the editor explained that things like freckles and moles could be covered by make up, Julia was not convinced stating that it was not possible to cover up everything and so strongly feels that they were using digital

Compare between two websites Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Compare between two websites - Essay Example These websites provide various services and software products for business management. Halogensoftware’s products are more focused towards talent management part of the business, whereas, Successfactors’ solutions are related to execution of business. Halogensoftware provides following major product package: performance appraisal, goal management, competency management, career development and planning, integrated talent profile, employee on boarding, activity tracker, easy HRIS integration, job description builder and real0time reporting etc. On the other hand, product and service package of successfactors include, business alignment, people performance and integrated business-execution software solutions. Both organizations provide more or less similar range of software products. Halogen provides money back guarantee for its services where as successfactors display Deloitte’s rating for its products. Analysis indicated that the successfactors has better described and marketed their products. For example, both firms offer a product 360-degree feedback; however, successfactors has given a brief comparison of 360 degree and a regular manager feedback to show how 360-degree feedback is better and why should it is adapted. Then, a visual presentation, including snap shots of the software product is available for the buyer. The product consists of three broad sections of information: employee information, employee feedback, and overall rating. A section of â€Å"legal scan† is also provided to serve legal purpos es. On the other hand, Halogen has provided a brief overview about the features, results, and affordability of its 360-degree rater. For another product, Succession planning, halogen has emphasized its cost effectiveness and affordability. The â€Å"talent pool model† is the base for this product. Its implementation is in three phases: First, the firm understands its workforce potential. Second, it develops internal

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The Chilli restaurant in Florida Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Chilli restaurant in Florida - Essay Example In the process of coming up with areas for improvement, there is a higher chance wherein this particular hotel can create competitive advantage as compared to its close The restaurant is among the top performing restaurants in Florida following the wide range of services offered to the customers upon their own requests and wishes. The hotel is flexible enough to adjust to any request the customer requires without fear or favor. There are the addresses for the restaurant and the operational times of the restaurant: Address: 7021 International Dr., Orlando, FL 32819 Phone Number: 407-352-7618 Location: United States - Florida (FL) -Central Florida Open Hours: Sunday 11:00 am - 11:00 pm Monday 11:00 am - 11:00 pm Tuesday 11:00 am - 11:00 pm Wednesday 11:00 am - 11:00 pm Thursday 11:00 am - 11:00 pm Friday 11:00 am - 12:00 am Saturday 11:00 am - 12:00 am Average Prices: USD 0 - 20 Bookings at the restaurant do not need to incorporate the above amusements or excitement, it are adaptable with what the customer might want to hang around, for instance the event that the client might want to contract the accommodation without food, and bring his or her own sustenance rather, this can be organized also.