Monday, September 30, 2019

Creating atmosphere

Creating an atmosphere of tolerance, acceptance and caring requires a consistent effort to understand the students who come from different cultures. It is important to treat their cultural and linguistic backgrounds as valid and equal to our own background. Treating their cultures as important and respectable creates an atmosphere of mutual trust and collaboration among the students. The broader understanding should reflect in every aspect of the academic institution. Building multicultural class room is an ongoing process and it requires consistent investment of time, money and effort.The diversity of students in today's classrooms underscores the importance of developing curricula, teaching strategies, and policies to help all students succeed in school. (Ingram, 2000) The diversity of students in the class room calls for creating an atmosphere of caring, understanding, and accepting other cultures. Treating the cultures as valid, equal and important is fundamental in creating an a tmosphere that fills confidence in both the teacher and the taught.Creating such an atmosphere becomes impossible unless the authorities who run the institution believe in the philosophy of understanding, acceptance and respect for other cultures. The process of creating an atmosphere of tolerance and acceptance begins with the very mission statement of the institution. The issues and needs of multi-cultural class room should be analyzed and understood and the learning from the same should reflect in the action plan.The analysis should take into account the problems and challenges of the faculty members, the fears and doubts of the students and the different aspects of administration of the school management. When every department in the institution follows the same action plan and philosophy and show the same spirit it becomes easier for the students to imbibe the same. Especially in the class room where people from five different ethnic groups are present, the question of creating an atmosphere of tolerance, acceptance and caring attains greater significance.The class room which has students from India, China, Kenya, Arabia, and Europeans along with the native students, it is most essential to foster an atmosphere of confidence and freedom for the students to have a healthy intellectual growth. The recognition and acceptance of students from all backgrounds and culture is essential to the concept of multi-cultural education. Multicultural education is a reform movement whose major goal is to change the structure of educational institutions so that all students have an equal chance to achieve academically in school.(Mungai, 2008) The diversity of students in the class room makes it more challenging for the faculty and the administration to create an atmosphere of acceptance, tolerance, and trust. For the students the class room not only opens up a new of world of learning experiences but also challenges them in understanding, welcoming and accepting new cultu res of other students. The role of the teacher in that multi-cultural class room acquires greater significance as he is challenged with the double task of teaching the subject and creating an atmosphere of care and understanding.Teachers embracing multiculturalism will offer for some of their students the first opportunity to stand in the center of life’s stage. They will demonstrate that the democratic ideals on which this country was founded apply to their school life and to their personal lives. (Josephine Scott, 2001) Teachers feel it a daunting task to deal with the students effectively in a multi cultural class room. Being aware of their weaknesses and drawbacks in dealing with all types of students is helpful in overcoming those challenges.When dealing with students it is not unusual for some teachers to feel comfortable with some students and uncomfortable with certain other students. Naturally it will leave different impressions on the students and it may also influe nce in giving grades to the students. Hence, evaluation of teaching practices and class room behavior and reflecting on the same plays a crucial role in modifying the approach of the teachers. Inviting other teachers and taking feed back from students and peers will go a long way in overcoming many of the problems.Making the content of the lessons multi cultural in subjects, though it is not possible in all the subjects, will expose the students to different cultures. Teacher’s self assessment about his level of consciousness and awareness of other races, religion and cultures helps him a lot in planning the class room activity effectively. Talking about the crucial role of teachers in creating a multicultural class room, Betty Wilson highlights the importance of teachers learning of new cultures.She says: I think it's very important for teachers to know their own cultures very well and study their own cultures, because then they begin to become more reflective listeners. The y look at other people's cultures in a different light, and they begin to see the similarities and differences in their cultures. It becomes a journey in a classroom of learning, because by the teacher sharing their own culture, then the students are more open to that. (Wilson, 2000)As Betty Wilson, the director of multicultural education at Oak Park School, rightly points out learning other cultures will be an enriching experience This demands not only learning new things and cultivating new habits but also unlearning old habits and beliefs. A resource center rich in solutions for the teachers solves many of the dilemmas of the teacher of multi-cultural class room. Sharing the experiences of other faculty members across the university or other institutions will be immensely useful for solving many of the issues in the day to day activities in the class room.Creating opportunities for knowing other cultures about their history and present situation and problems should be made a part of academic curricula. Planning on campus or off campus events teachers and their assistant will have a better understanding of the needs of young people who are members of different cultures. A multi-cultural celebration day is a wonderful idea for all the students who come from different cultures to express themselves freely and to recognize and understand the importance of other cultures.Setting up a bulletin board that gives equal importance to all the five different cultures without hurting the feelings of others is major step in announcing the multi-cultural festival. The board provides ample space for exhibiting the important or representative symbols all the cultures that are present in the class room. Assigning the work to the students to create their own poster expressing their cultural values and symbols encourages all the students and involves every student in the work. Monitoring their work without any interference in their creative expression is a delicate task and it should be dealt with very sensitively.Giving clear instructions in advance will solve many delicate issues. For example, informing the students clearly the place of their poster on the bulletin board following an objective method like the alphabetical order avoids scope for conflict. In fact, to create multicultural class room is a continuous process. It does not end with a multicultural festival. It requires careful planning and meticulous execution over a period of time to establish strongly a base for multicultural class room environment. It will not happen in a day or a semester.It is a demanding work for life long involving learning and unlearning. Creating a healthy multicultural class room is not just the work of the class teacher only. It needs active participation of every teaching and non teaching staff member of the institution. The support and leadership of the authorities who run the institution and the participation of all the departments are the foundation on which t he edifice of a multicultural class room can be built. Of course, the process is bound to have certain occasional failures and setbacks but the process should be an ongoing one.It requires a lot of determination, time, effort and money and the investment of all these are worth building a multicultural world for a happy and healthy coexistence. It calls for a long-term investment, an investment in our own growth and change as well as in our students and in the university and society of which they and we will continue to be a part. (Mark Chesler, 2003) References Chesler Mark (2003) Teaching Well in the Diverse/Multicultural Classroom http://www. aahea. org/bulletins/articles/sociology. htm Ingram Arlette Willis (2000) Addressing Literacy Needs in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classrooms.http://www. ncrel. org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li400. htm Mungai Anne,(2008) Help! I Am Not Prepared for A Diverse Classroom http://www. cluteinstitute-onlinejournals. com/P rograms/Puerto_Rico_2008/Article%20123%20Mungai. pdf Scott Josephine (2001). Meeting the Diverse Needs of All Students http://www. eduplace. com/science/profdev/articles/scott. html Wilson Bette (2000) An Interview at North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. http://www. ncrel. org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/wilson1trns. htm A Sample Bulletin Board to be created

Guinness coursework

Tipping point has been the most talked about advert of recent times, partly to do with the amount of money spent on it but mostly due to the amount of props and effects used. In this review I will analyse various aspects of the ad including camera work, colour, setting, props and actors. One of the many shots used is the close up which emphasises certain aspects of the ad. The close up is used at the start to show the man's hand just before he pushes over the dominoes, this emphasises the importance of that particular action and it undoubtedly draws the viewer's attention to it. Another close up is also used later on in the ad to highlight certain expressions on people's faces & this changes the mood and the momentum of the ad. Alongside the close ups, the long shot has also been utilised in order to provide a panoramic view & also gives the exact position of the object or character in relation to the surroundings. The two shots mentioned above effectively communicate the mood and body language of the characters thereby igniting the interest of the viewers whilst making them more inquisitive. As far as the colour is concerned the ad is given a time effect where the hues of the objects & buildings appear faded and worn out & makes the audience trace the product advertised to its origin. It also conveys that the product has a long lasting relationship with the audience & has been a part & parcel of their daily lives. Colours affect our moods and help us visualise the situation. Using right colours and tones leaves a lasting effect on viewers' mind which eventually results in them contemplating the purchase. The colours used are also quite dull which wouldn't normally be associated with modern life therefore showing that the product has a history of serving the audience i.e. in the olden days. Setting is very crucial to the character of the product. It helps viewers identify themselves with the product and creates a sense of belonging and pride in being associated with the product. The setting seems to be in an old foreign village which might indicate that the product has reached out to people in other parts of the world and this may portray the product as being well known so people might want to try it. The setting may also invoke a sense of belonging as the village and its people are seem to be of a certain mould who are linked to the product, the audience may be drawn towards the product because of this. The props which have been chosen also play an important role in making the ad a success. They have been particularly chosen because they represent the characters' lifestyles which seem to very ordinary and basic i.e. plain cardboard boxes have been used which indicates the simplicity of the village. However despite this simplicity the product seems to be an integral part of their lifestyle and I feel the props have been selected to contrast with the big glass of Guinness at the end which is far from simple in terms of size and colour. Apart from these points, the undoubtedly most significant factor is the domino effect which the ad itself revolves around. The domino effect provides the excitement in the ad and its perfect synchronisation intrigues the viewer as well as making the ad memorable, therefore embedding an image of the product in the viewers' minds. Another aspect of the advert is the actors whose reactions and expressions provide the excitement and a sense of fun. The actors more or less react to the events in a similar way however they are all doing their own thing whether it is working in bakery or looking after the livestock. The idea behind this is to show that no matter what type of person or profession Guinness is something all the locals have in common; they all cheer together when the domino effect is happening and also rejoice in sync as the glass of Guinness is â€Å"filled†. As well as the setting, the actors also contribute to a sense of belonging which attracts the viewer and makes them try the product. Also, the characters have been portrayed in such a way which makes them seem as they to some extent worship the product which may represent the love for Guinness buyers have around the world. Having reviewed and analysed the different features of the ad I believe that the its success has been largely due to the domino effect shown in the ad this has made the ad memorable and eye-catching. However, other factors like colour and setting have also made the ad a wonder. I am confident that applying these features to our adverts will surely increase the popularity of our product amongst the public.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Primary education Essay

Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, research, or simply through autodidacticism. [1] Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. Systems of schooling involve institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself is established according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system. Schools systems were also based on people’s religion giving them different curricula. [edit] Curriculum Main articles: Curriculum, Curriculum theory, and List of academic disciplines School children in Durban, South Africa. In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university–or via some other such method. Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences. [5] Educational institutions may incorporate fine arts as part of K-12 grade curriculums or within majors at colleges and universities as electives. The various types of fine arts are music, dance, and theater. [6] [edit] Preschools Main article: Preschool education The term preschool refers to a school for children who are not old enough to attend kindergarten. It is a nursery school. Preschool education is important because it can give a child the edge in a competitive world and education climate. [citation needed] While children who do not receive the fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet, counting, shapes and colors and designs when they begin their formal education they will be behind the children who already possess that knowledge. The true purpose behind kindergarten is â€Å"to provide a child-centered, preschool curriculum for three to seven year old children that aimed at unfolding the child’s physical, intellectual, and moral nature with balanced emphasis on each of them. †[7] [edit] Primary schools Main article: Primary education Primary school in open air. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts of Bucharest, around 1842. Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 5–7 years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally, around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising. [8] Under the Education For All programs driven by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have separate middle schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education, are mostly referred to as primary schools. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school. In India, compulsory education spans over twelve years, out of which children receive elementary education for 8 years. Elementary schooling consists of five years of primary schooling and 3 years of upper primary schooling. Various states in the republic of India provide 12 years of compulsory school education based on national curriculum framework designed by the National Council of Educational Research and Training. Students working with a teacher at Albany Senior High School, New Zealand Students in a classroom at Samdach Euv High School, Cambodia In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective tertiary, â€Å"post-secondary†, or â€Å"higher† education (e. g. university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States, Canada and Australia primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 1–13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession. The emergence of secondary education in the United States did not happen until 1910, caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories (for instance, the emergence of electrification), that required skilled workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high schools were created, with a curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better  prepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work. This proved to be beneficial for both employers and employees, for the improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient, which lowered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educational attainment. In Europe, grammar schools or academies date from as early as the 16th century, in the form of public schools, fee-paying schools, or charitable educational foundations, which themselves have an even longer history.

Effects of Christianity on Behaviour, Attitude and Lifestyle Essay

â€Å"There could be no such things as prison in a truly Christian society.† I think a truly Christian society is based on the life and teaching of Jesus, this means we must follow the 10 commandments and the gospel values. At the heart of Christian society there should be existence of love, forgiveness, mercy, justice to criminals. Jesus’ command was to â€Å"Love your God, Love your neighbour and Love yourself.† By obeying these commandments we are being Christ-like which is what the Christian society is all about. Forgiveness does not mean letting people walk all over you! But it is important. Christianity follows Jesus’ teaching in stressing that forgiveness is vital. It may be very hard, particularly for the victim of a crime. The Prodigal Son was a parable that showed forgiveness. The prison is the means to deliver the punishment, the denial of freedom. The convicted are imprisoned as a punishment, not for punishment. â€Å"Her Majesty’s Prison Service serves the public by keeping in custody those committed by the courts. Our duty is to look after them with humanity and help them lead law abiding and useful lives in custody and after release.† HM Prisons Service’s Mission Statement 1988. Three principles in prison craft: Security- to hold securely those sent to prison. Humanity- to treat prisoners with humanity, prisoners lose their liberty they should not lose their humanity. They are still human beings with the rights that their nature awards them. Assistance- to help make prisoners law abiding and give them useful lives. Prison can exist in a truly Christian society but not always, poor prison conditions do not lead to reform, they only serve to make prisoners worse. To become better people they need first and foremost their dignity, remember Jesus’ command to love self, this means having a good self-esteem. Prisoners have a right to feel safe, the opposite happened in Fletham Young Offenders Institution. March 2000, 19 year old Zahid Mubarek was beaten to death by his cellmate, Robert Stewart had a history of racist and violent behaviour. This evidence does not allow for fostering self-esteem or provide opportunities to rehabilitate. For prison to uphold Christian principles the reform of the offender is of paramount importance. Practical measures such as education, drink and drug therapy and counseling are required. There is evidence that education effects personal change in prisoners, not only through the acquisition of practical skills and knowledge, but also through fostering self-esteem and skills in communication. Mike Hart, Category A prisoner, killed a 20 year olds woman in an armed robbery. Whole in prison he become a born again Christian, and has worked on projects while inside to help young people be aware of what prison is really like in an attempt to turn young people away from the life of crime or potential crime. One such project, â€Å"Better Out than In† was a drama presentation re. The image of prisoners and prisons, depicting the harsh reality. How effective his work been, very difficult to assess but anecdotal evidence suggests that it is. There could and couldn’t be such things as prison in a truly Christian society, it depends on the type of prison and what happens in the prison as to whether prison has a place in a truly Christian society. For prisons to co-exist in a truly Christian society they need to have therapeutic regime employed to rehabilitate the offender rather than punitive one. Not many people can uphold the mission statement, so it needs to be looked at and improved in order to fit into a Christian society. If we look ahead Christians today can also help reform prisoners like the Howard Penal League, where prisoners where able to reform by their help. During the 19th Century Elizabeth Fry Quaker who was a Christian went to prison to help rehabilitate criminals.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Racial and Ethnic Groups Essay

There are three sociological perspectives of race and ethnicity which are functionalist, conflict, and labeling perspectives. The first one I will discuss is the functionalist perspective. The functionalist perspective emphasizes how the parts of society are structured to maintain its stability. As also described in the reading the functionalist approach is an approach, if an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society’s stability or survival, it will not be passed on from one generation to the next. The functionalist perspective thinks that racial hostility is hard to be admired but the functionalist would point out that it serves some positive functions from the perspective group of the racists as described. In the dominant group there are five functions that racial beliefs have for the dominant group. As described they are the following: 1. A society that practices discrimination fails to use the resources of all individuals. Discrimination limits the search for talent and leadership to the dominant group. 2. Discrimination aggravates social problems such as poverty, delinquency, and crime and places the financial burden of alleviating these problems on the dominant group. 3. Society must invest a good deal of time and money to defend the barriers that prevent the full participation of all members. 4. Racial prejudice and discrimination undercut goodwill and friendly diplomatic relations between nations. They also negatively affect efforts to increase global trade. 5. Social change is inhibited because change may assist a subordinate group. 6. Discrimination promotes disrespect for law enforcement and for the peaceful settlement of disputes. The second perspective is the conflict perspective which is the perspective assumes that the social structure is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups. As described in the reading society is a struggle between the privileged (the dominant group) and the exploited (the subordinate group). There is competition that takes groups between groups with unequal amounts of political and economic powers. A difference is that functionalists are not necessarily in favor of inequality; their approach is helps to understand why such systems persist as described. The subordinate group is criticized for its low status. The dominant group is responsible for subordination which is often ignored. The third approach is the labeling approach. The labeling theory which is described in the reading is a concept introduced by sociologist Howard Becker, is an attempt to explain why certain people are viewed as deviant and other engaging in the same behavior are not. As said in the reading a crucial aspect of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the prerogative of the dominant group to define society’s values. Minorities are believed to have the lack of ability to perform in important positions where subordinate group are locked into society’s inferior jobs. I feel that I can agree with the labeling perspective the most. The reason for this is that it still exists in today’s society. Companies are required to provide equal opportunity employment and cannot discriminate against religion, race, or age. We know that this is still not true. You see that most police officers and firefighters are still mostly men. You still see large amounts of families have stay at home mothers. Another example would believe that if a child is bad in school that it has to be his or her parents that make them that way. I believe that it truly is still an issue among individuals. Part II I choose African Americans and the creation of migration and the consequence of segregation. Migration is defined as a general term that describes any transfer of population. Segregation is described the physical separation of two groups, often imposed on a subordinate group by the dominant group. According to Wikipedia I choose The Great Migration. As described it was the movement of 2 million African American out of the Southern United States to the Midwest, Northeast, and West from 1910 to 1930. They migrated to escape racism and seek employment opportunities in industrial cities. When the Emancipation Proclamation was signed in 1863 less than eight percent of the African American population lived in the northeastern or Midwestern U. S. As described, â€Å"Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population grew by about 40% in Northern states, mostly in the major cities. Cities such as Chicago, Detroit, New York, and Cleveland had some of the biggest increases in the early part of the century. Because changes were concentrated in cities, urban tensions rose as African Americans and new or recent European immigrants, both groups chiefly from rural societies, competed for jobs and housing with the white ethnic working class. Tensions were often most severe between ethnic Irish, defending their positions, and recent immigrants and blacks. † â€Å"African Americans moved as individuals or small family groups. There was no government assistance, but often northern industries, such as the railroads, meatpacking and stockyards, recruited people. The primary factor for migration was the racial climate and widespread violence of lynching in the South. In the North, they could find better schools and adult men could vote (joined by women after 1920). Burgeoning industries meant there were job opportunities. † (Wikipedia, 2010) This in turn caused African Americans to feel segregated and felt they had to be among other African Americans do to how they are treated. There were many fights and riots among different cultural groups due to segregation. Such as the example of African Americans who could not sit in the front of the bus because of their race. In today’s society this is ethnically not acceptable. References: Wikipedia. (2010, October 15). Wikipedia. org. Retrieved October 23, 2010, from Wikipedia: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Great_Migration_(African_American).

Psychology of Diversity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Psychology of Diversity - Essay Example Wiki’s leadership traits are inherent and her family has been custodian of ‘ceremonial treasures’ used in Yurok cultural rituals. She firmly believes that education is the vital tool that would not only raise the living standard of the American Indians but it would also help propagate the rich cultural heritage of the tribe and bring it on the world map. Wiki’s efforts were recognized and school initiatives that prepare the disadvantaged students to get secondary school diploma and college credits are being funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Wiki’s assertion that ‘this is the frontline of our civil rights movements’ tells the sorry state of American Indians in a country that is considered the be one of the most developed and technologically advanced nations of the world. American Indians got this name when Columbus landed in America in 1492 but thought that he has reached India and named the brown skinned people as Indians. Since that time, the American Indians have existed in diverse geographical locations, having their unique customs and cultural identity but unfortunately, they have not yet been absorbed into the mainstream American society. One can glean from the article that they have yet to become true citizens of the country. The whites have maintained a racial divide within the society through deliberate use of powerful lobby of the whites and financial advantages that they enjoyed over their less privileged counterparts. The Native Americans and blacks were not allowed to participate in social activities and even education was denied to them so that they would remain unequal socially and economically. It is indeed, ironical that month of November is celebrated as ‘National American Indian Heritage Month’ and the government and non-government agencies honor American Indians for their contribution and

Friday, September 27, 2019

Exam 3 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Exam 3 - Research Paper Example This order faced many challenges with the migration of the African American to from southern to demonstrate against the violation of the order (Richard 78). This order helped the country during the war that emerged later with the African Americans being referred as janitors in the military sector. Civil Rights Act of 1964- In July 2, 1964, this Act got its creation as a landmark piece of civil rights in the United States in order to outlaw the major forms of discrimination against race, color, religion, sex, and women. The act ended the Jim Crow rules upheld by the Supreme Court that held the racial segregation purported as separate but equal and was constitutional. A congress later saw the benefits of the Civil Rights Act and expanded it to strengthen enforcement of the fundamental rights. During the proposed hearings by the Judiciary committee on the proposed legislation led to the amendment of the bill to broaden the scope of protections. These changes strengthen President Kennedy ’s original proposal on the response to the turbulent summer that saw several incidents of racially aggravated hostility across the south. After a continued fight against its approval, the country saw the benefits of the bill that saw the president in that particular time signs it into law. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)- This federal law enforcement agency enacts laws against workplace discrimination. It encompasses some other laws like the title of the Civil Rights Act 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, which protects men and women who perform equal work in the same founding from sex- based discrimination. It also covers Age Discrimination in Employment of 1967, which protects folks above 40 years of age, or older (Hay 100). The United States Employment Opportunity Commission enforces all the above laws and provides an oversight and harmonization of all equal employment opportunity regulations, practices, and policies. Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADE A) OF 1967- This protects folks of 40 years of age and above from employment discrimination. This applies both job applicant and employees. According to the law, it is illegal to discriminate any person because of age with respect to any term, condition, privilege of service. This includes hiring, sacking, endorsement, layoff, reimbursement, paybacks, training, and job assignments. It applies to those employers with 20 or more workers including state, local governments, employment agencies, labor organizations, and the federal government. This has helped the government from risks associated with equal considerations in the workplace. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1973- It is a federal law enacted on September 26, 1973 and is known as the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that replaces the Vocational rehabilitation Act. It covers those individuals with a special history of handicaps or any health complications. Special programs held to pay tribute to people with disabilities prohibits discrimination against any disability in the agencies, in programs receiving Federal Financial assistance, employment among others. This helps value the contribution from those with disabilities. Question 2 Some people remain more fortunate than others in which they remain promoted while others stay at the middle or at the bottom of the positional ladder. This rise in rank

How does depreciation accounting help the firm manage equipment Essay

How does depreciation accounting help the firm manage equipment investment costs and taxes - Essay Example † More so, the question which contains a series of sub-questions will be answered in the order in which these sub-questions have been asked. Current Liabilities usually form a sub-section of the Balance sheet. Typical Current Liabilities of known amounts may include accounts payable, short-term loans, outstanding salaries or other operating expenses that are still outstanding. Accounts payable refer to the amounts that ought to be paid to suppliers for merchandise bought from them in credit terms. Short-term loans are those types of loans that are usually repayable in a time period of less than a year. Outstanding expenses are those expenses that have already been incurred in the business in their day-to-day operations and which are yet to be met but have are already due. For an illustration of how Current Liabilities of known amounts are treated in the accounts, Accounts payable will be used. Whenever accounts payable increase in the business, the accounts payable ledger accou nt is usually credited with the increase while the goods or stock account is debited with a similar amount. The journal entry is usually as illustrated; Dr Cr Amount Stock a/c xx Accounts payable xx Then, this Accounts payable amount has to be put under Current Liabilities sub-section in the Balance Sheet. The other Current Liabilities are also credited with an increase and debited with a decrease. (, 2011) Estimated Liabilities are those liabilities for which payee is known as well as payment date, but they remain uncertain as concerns their payment amounts. These payment amounts can be estimated with reasonability, though. Uncertainty in the amounts may come about due to the fact that the amounts to be paid are based upon a given event the will occur in future or an amount which determination is not yet. Estimated Current Liabilities maybe with the inclusion of; vacation, bonus, warranty liabilities and health benefits. Any estimated liability is usually recorded for expected commodities in future to be provided in that future period. Whenever payments are met that estimated liability is usually reduced and to reflect the same in the Balance Sheet the equivalent account of estimated Current Liability in question is debited and the double entry is also reflected in the equivalent account. When a payment of an estimated current liability is made the journal entry is as follows (using health benefits as an example): Dr Cr Amount Health Benefit xx Cash/ Check xx (, 2008) Contingent Liabilities are liabilities that are connected with uncertain events. To this, the explanation given in any typical business is that some events are likely to eventually lead to a liability; however, the timing of such an event as well as the amount is not possible at present. Such liabilities are thus, referred to as Contingent Liabilities. Examples of Current Liabilities befitting this description are Legal disputes which are ongoing and wh ich may cause a contingent liability to the business, environmental pollution that may call for the business to cover the cost in future, or other liabilities like commodity warranties. However, it should be noted

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Conservation of Non-Living Elements and Living Natural Resources Essay

The Conservation of Non-Living Elements and Living Natural Resources - Essay Example Albert Einstein is regarded as one of the greatest modern scientists. Albert EinsteinPredictably and prophetically remarked that the disappearance of honeybee for more than 5 years can pose threat to the survival of mankind. Every single living and non-living animal special plays a pivotal role in the production of vegetables and fruits that are consumed by human beings. An article outlined by Newsweek based on loss of bee and called it an urgent crisis. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a survey has been done to provide vivid information about the adverse impact of the loss of honeybee. The loss of third of commercial bees has been the prime cause behind the introduction of the emergency plan. Over the last fifty years, the population of the honeybee has been lessening. The Department of Agriculture stated that honeybee helps to pollinate more than 80 percent of the flowering crops (McCarthy 90). Furthermore, this process of pollination leads to one-third of every food people eat. The loss could not only affect the dairy and beer industries but may threaten dietary fruits and vegetables such as broccoli, apples, cucumbers, asparagus, nuts and strawberries. The executive of the Consumer Wellness Center, Mike Adams stated that the loss of population of the human bee is one of the greatest fears to the future of the planet. The rapid upsurge of the population has been one of the pivotal reasons behind the loss of honeybees. The positive impact of honeybees towards mankind cannot be denied. But it is vital for the government to take necessary steps to mobilize the problem. According to the State Beekeepers Association of California, there is no danger of extinction of honeybee species. The extinction of these species would take hundreds of years.  

Starbucks Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Starbucks - Research Paper Example During the period that they get the losses they usually aim at gaining the trust of their customers. The other strategy that they have commonly used is the buying out of leases of their competitors. Through such marketing they aim at making themselves stronger in the market while at the same time reducing the influence of these competitors to the market. If such a marketing strategy is successful it can be used as a tool for elimination of competition by the business organization. The use of such a marketing activity has contributed to the high number of criticisms of the methods that Starbuck uses to gain the market capital that they have. Critics claim that they use such activities to make sure that they make it hard for the small businesses in this industry to survive and grow. Starbuck also used to put several outlets within a particular geographical location. This can only be effective in a situation where they have noticed that there is a large market and demand for the products that they sell. It is also best in a situation where they are the most popular producers of such goods within this geographical location. When they put up many outlets they are able to give new entrants a hard time in trying to get a market for their products. This strategy can also be used to do away with competitors who have small market capital. This is because if they are considered by the public to the best producers of the products they produce, and are readily accessible due to the increased number of outlets, customers will have absolutely no reason to go elsewhere. For a marketing strategy to be completely effective, it is important for a business organization to be aware of the market they target. Good knowledge of the target will enable a business organization to be in a position to know exactly the type of marketing strategy that the will use in making sure that they improve and enhance their market capital. Starbuck should focus on the high

International Economic Growth (Economics) Essay

International Economic Growth (Economics) - Essay Example It has been destroyed about 30 % of basic industry equipment. After numerous bombing Nagasaki and Hiroshima has been almost purely ruinous. The capital of the country, Tokyo, has stayed in ruin. There has been demobilized about 9 million soldiers, moreover 1.5 million people has entered the country as refugees. The inflation has reached 5000 %. There has been overall shortage of goods and materials. There has been a great dearth. The value of the yen to the dollar has been constantly falling down that has evidenced that financial system of the state has been completely unsettled. Notwithstanding Japanese people has felt release with the end and war. The society has been full of optimistic expectations. Everybody has been equally poor, and everybody has had the same chances. They have started everything from the very beginning. The great role of Japan economics development has been played by Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). It seems like no other governmental regulation or organization had more economic impact than this ministry. "The particular speed, form, and consequences of Japanese economic growth are not intelligible without reference to the contributions of MITI" (Johnson, 1982). The main achievement of Japan government that time has been an efficient cooperation between the Japanese government and private industry. The other scholar, David R. Henderson, considers that "MITI plans for industry growth, and sometimes gets other agencies to use their powers to carry out the plans, the extent of MITI's control, and of government control generally, has been greatly exaggerated". It should be mentioned that in period 1955 -1973, Japan government has had six different National Economic Plans. But without exception actual growth rates have exceeded those required to fulfill the plan's targets. This is evidence that the plans themselves were not responsible. The course that has been chosen for the state's development to some extent may seem paradoxical: To cut the program of industry funding in order to take inflation under control; To eliminate the dependence of enterprises development on external source of financing; To state fixed value of yen to a dollar. These sanctions have created severe conditions for those industry branches, which have been subsidized with the help of foreign or governmental sources of financing. The position has been more aggravated in result of division of such big monopolistic incorporations like "Mitsui", "Mitsubishi", and "Sumitomo". The point is that in result of such division there have been broken numerous connections with providers of raw products. In this sphere they have has to start everything from the very beginning too. The program of development, which taken a lot of companies over a rough road, has followed the aim to stop the hasty growth of prices. The numerous companies' bankruptcy has been seen as less harmful for the economy as engrossing inflation. Reduce of market for the goods resulted decrease. But there has been any assurance that Japan economics would stand the test of conjuncture degradation. The market changes resulted by the war in Korea has saved a lot of Japan companies. The boom has lasted for a year, and then another decline has come. The question of vital importance has become a long-term economics development, and its

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Renaissance and Baroque art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Renaissance and Baroque art - Essay Example In â€Å"The Calling of St. Matthew†, Caravaggio depicted an event that occurred narrative of the moment when Jesus Christ encouraged the tax collector, Matthew, to have faith in him and become his disciple. The painting possesses a clear attribute of reality through the bodily gestures and facial expressions drawn to life with realistic human anatomies along with a concrete setting where men discuss over a table by the window. Caravaggio seemed to have made particular emphasis on the placement of light and shadows to signify the spots where the main subjects are designated. Through the perspective of light, a viewer readily figures the character with authority and Caravaggio’s balancing technique with light and shadow tends to enable the Christ a reflection of his divine nature, illuminating what beams on the faces of men despite the gloom of the place. Altogether, the image projected of Christ and of St. Matthew is something that stirs familiarity to a powerful act of faith. One who had lived in the age of Italian Renaissance, nevertheless, would have seen religious portrayals which were more of picturesque heavens, cherubs, seraphs, and divine figures whose rigid structure(are rather beyond the grasp of real senses. Depictions of Christ’s death on the cross via Italian Renaissance Art often took on a general flat image, lacking proper volume or additional dimension that could have enliven the subject of the painting and added to it some relevant drama. The Italian Renaissance Art may be credited.

Outline what Kant understands by the sublime and the beautiful and Essay

Outline what Kant understands by the sublime and the beautiful and evaluate their usefulness for understanding the aesthetic - Essay Example In this regard, Immanuel Kant, one of the greatest (if not the greatest) modern philosophers has provided a guide with which humanity may be able to understand and explicate visions and experience of beauty in the human world. This paper intends to present an outline of Kant’s understanding of the sublime and the beautiful. And then, the author will determine and evaluate the usefulness of Kant’s discussion of the sublime and the beautiful for understanding the aesthetic experience. In lieu with this, the paper will have the following structure: first part will be the introduction where the intention and structure of the paper is presented. The second part will be a discussion Kant’s concept of beauty. The third part will be on Kant’s concept of the sublime and fourth part will be the evaluation of Kant’s discussion on the beautiful and the sublime. In the end, it is the hope of the author that the understanding gained from this exposition helps in creating a vision of a world that is authentically responsive to the presentations and representations of what it means to be a human person. Kant’s discussion of the beautiful starts with the claim that the judgement of taste is disinterested, â€Å"Taste is the faculty of judging an object or a method of representing it by an entirely disinterested satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The object of such satisfaction is called beautiful.†1 This implies that judgment of taste is impartial of any feelings or emotions since â€Å"We must not be in the least prejudiced in favour of the existence of the things, but be quite indifferent in this respect, in order to play the judge in things of taste.†2 This is the first condition of beauty.3 The second condition is that the pleasure from the disinterested satisfaction should be a universal voice bereft of any personal satisfactions or

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Discussion 7 international relations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Discussion 7 international relations - Essay Example 47). Kant’s article thus has promoted a unique cosmopolitan approach to developing an international law that all individuals possess equal rights regardless of the country they belong to. His work put forward specific three articles about perpetual peace among nations, they are, a) republican-character of every states’ civil constitution, b) law of nations as being federation of free states, and c) world citizenship as conditions of universal (Russett, Starr and Kinsella, 2009). First section of Immanuel Kant’s writings emphasized that no peace-treaty will be valid if it is made with a secret reservation for material for a future war, an independently existing land shall not be acquired by another state for inheritance, standing armies shall gradually be abolished, a state’s debts shall not be contracted in connection with the external affairs of the state etc. The other sections from his writings suggested that each nation can demand of the others that th ey should enter along with them in to a constitution, similar to the civil one for the sake of security reasons. His perpetual peace theory denoted idea of international right which in turn presupposes the separate existence of many independent states (Kant, p. 368- 374).

To Spy or Not to Spy Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

To Spy or Not to Spy - Case Study Example ny is as productive as possible, the incoming CEO intends to implement changes which will require employees to be more productive and managers to be more innovative. The current market situation as identified in the case shows increasing competition and laxity of employees as well as stagnated management which does not recognize the benefits of changes within the contemporary business model. The facts of the case as relating to the key decision makers identified above revolve around the incoming CEO, Schwartz, whose intention to transform the company proposes a series of changes among them an openly refutable suggestion to spy on employees. At the boardroom speech as he was addressing the management, Schwartz makes it know that he was for the idea that right technology was capable of making everything possible. Top management such as Photo, Thuy, and Ali Khan did not seem to agree with the idea that the incoming CEO was trying to impose his philosophy on the the company and forcing everyone else to buy into it. On a rather unfortunate turn of events, Miller, the HR Director seized the opportunity of being the pioneer of presenting and innovation that could enhance the employee output at the company; an idea that Schwartz coined to involve spying of employee’s internet and email activity. In his idea, Miller proposed a data collection program that could be used to monitor productivity but Schwartz idea was highly resisted as it was depriving employees of privacy (Unit 3 Case Study. pp. 1-14) The symptoms occurring on the case represent a number of factors that do not fit within the expectations of every character. Areas of conflict in the case involve the very personal nature of Schwartz and his history with implementing changes. With this fact overly anticipated, most of the managers already have negative opinion about his intentions. Technology as a means to improve performance and productivity is an acceptable factor with a downside every manager disagrees

Monday, September 23, 2019

Michael Sandels Designer Babies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Michael Sandels Designer Babies - Essay Example The title of the essay, Designer Babies, can elicit reader’s interest and maintain it throughout the article as they strive to comprehend the circumstances surrounding designing of babies. The article is logically organized into introduction, body, and conclusion, with captivating subtitles that are crucial elements of a well-structured essay. The thesis statement is found in the first paragraph where the author argues that some people accept sex selection for children; however, researchers have not addressed other issues such as physical appearance and intelligence. Another feature that makes the article rather captivating constitutes excellent transitions between paragraphs and effective use of rhetoric questions. Paragraph transitions are organized in such a way that they answer questions posed in the previous paragraphs, or pose a question for discussion in the paragraph. Rhetoric questions are vital in this essay as they help in engaging the reader as the article progress es. The writer does not use numbering in the article, but organizes the essay into varying lengths of paragraphs with clear distinctions between paragraph ideas. Long paragraphs are used to explain the author’s ideas, while short paragraphs at the end of the chapters are used to summarize ideas and giving conclusive solutions to questions of the subtitles. Sandel refers to historical events when discussing his opinions to support his views. For example, when discussing the use of genetic testing.

Introduction to Organisations and Management Assignment

Introduction to Organisations and Management - Assignment Example The team building effort and work of both the organisations have been cited by mentioning the important features that played a significant part in those aspects. The management and leadership approach of these companies are explained in detail. The paper also contains the details of organisational culture of both the organisations. 2.0 External Environment and Organisational Structure Critical Comment Organisational structure and organisational design assist an organisation to organize the people and task in order to meet the goals and objectives of an organisation. Theories The hierarchical structure is pyramid in its form. In the hierarchical structure, president is placed at the top followed by ‘vice president’ or ‘senior managers’ and below this level there are a number of management layers and maximum employees are placed at the bottom level of the pyramid. Each of these people has several people reporting to them. The number of people increases at each level down the structure. The jobs in the hierarchical structure are categorised by function into various departments in the organisation (Reference for Business, 2011). Source: (Tutor 2u, n.d.). Network structure refers to â€Å"the arrangement of the differentiated elements that can be recognised as the patterned flows of information in a communication network†. The virtual organisation utilises electronic mail in order to share information as well as coordinate their work. The use of email permits the workers to maintain their identity without a shared physical setting and facilitates existence of a group without evident participants (Ahuja & Carley, 2001). Contrast The organisational structure of Watsons Engine Components is out of fashion and possesses hierarchical structure. Though hierarchical structure provides advantages in an organisation, Watsons Engine Components faced problem in their organisational structure due to various reasons. The communication which took place in each department was not effective and rivalry arose in the organisation as each department took decision based on their own interest rather than the interest of the whole organisation. The increased bureaucracy created an obstruction towards their endeavour of organisational change; and while responding to the clients, maximum time was required. Since there were a numbers of layers in the hierarchy, it entailed the company to increase its cost (Know How, n.d.). H & M Consulting is an organisation with network based organisational structure since a group of people interact by means of interdependent task for the attainment of common goals. The virtual organisation is geographically distributed as the members in the organisation work for common interests and goals. As it is a virtual organisation, it involves high level of informal communication. Due to deficient formal rules, procedures, clear reporting relationships and norms, there is a requirement of more extensive inform al communication (Ahuja & Carley, 2001). External Environment PESTEL Analysis Comment Critically Various factors are present in the external environment that influences managers to take decision. The analysis of various factors can be done by using the PESTEL model. Theory The model of PESTEL analysis involves political, economic, social, technological, environment and legal. Political factors denote the

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Human Computer Interaction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Human Computer Interaction - Essay Example HCI has evolved as a concept that facilitates taking into consideration the different needs of the users. The users can effectively interact with the computer systems through a platform that is known to be HCI. However the importance of HCI is widespread and encompasses wide array of elements. The first improvement of the concept is that it helps to gain market share. In general context individuals always prefer to use only those items that have higher usability. For instance it can be supported by an example of Google, this search engine is world famous and has largest market share across the globe (Deustsch, 2013).The reason behind this is the search engine has higher efficiency and can be easily used by individuals. HCI is even important as it helps to improve productivity. For instance such an interaction helps employees working in a firm to perform better and faster. The Intranet facilities help in increasing the overall efficiency of employees (Pulz, 2013).The importance of HCI can also be witnessed in the form of lowering support costs. If a product cannot be used properly then enormous calls are made by customers to customer service department. However the higher usability rate due to HCI helps in reducing these forms of cost that is associated with support services. HCI even helps in reducing the development costs as it avoid such features that are complex and cannot be used easily by the users. Speech recognition is considered to be an effective tool for HCI or Human Computer Interaction. Speech recognition is one of the fields of computer science that is associated with designing such a structure which helps in recognizing words that are spoken. It is such an application that enables a computer to clearly identify those words that are spoken by a person either through a telephone or microphone (Brodkin, 2012).Speech recognition can also be classified as a process that converts acoustic signal coming from a telephone or microphone to a group of

Fast Food Nation Essay Example for Free

Fast Food Nation Essay Whether we like it or not, fast food and its detrimental effects have become an epidemic. For many years, people have been oblivious to the growth of the fast food industry. However, over the past three decades, the fast food industry has nearly taken over our American society; almost anywhere, one can see its vast influence. As a result, in his book, Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser portrays the influence of the industry. By implementing pathetic appeals for injustice and disgust, statistics from reputable sources, and fear of the consequences of fast food, Schlosser shows the average adult how the fast food industry is ruining American culture as a way to reform its problems. Throughout his book, Schlosser consistently tries to create an emotional appeal, particularly to one’s injustice and disgust to depict his opinion. When one hears things such as, â€Å"The hamburger habit is just about as safe†¦as getting your meat out of a garbage can† (Schlosser 195), he or she cannot help but to be disgusted. Of course no one wants to be told that he or she is eating trash. Moreover, Schlosser discusses other vomit-inducing truths such as, the numerous amounts of cannibal animals among the animals whose meat becomes the food that people eat at a fast food restaurant (202). He also talks about how every year there are millions of dead animals purchased to be fed to the animals that restaurants provide as meat (Schlosser 202). Lastly, Schlosser writes, â€Å"There is shit in the meat† (197), which immediately grabs the reader’s attention and hence shows his pathetic appeal to persuasively convey his opinion. Would anyone really want to eat a feces burger for lunch? In addition, out of 355 detailed pages, Schlosser’s statistics are omnipresent. He constantly uses them to back up his statements with evidence, even dedicating one sixth of the book to notes full of statistics with reputable sources. Although he already states his facts persuasively, they become more convincing with this use of logos. For instance, at many times, authors will make up a statement and act as if it were a true fact. However, when he writes, â€Å"There is a 100 percent turnover rate annually† (Schlosser 325) and quotes it from a published article, one can actually know the turnover rate without having to question its validity. Furthermore, when Schlosser writes about how 7. 5% of all ground beef samples are contaminated with Salmonella and quotes it from a Nationwide Microbiological survey, one does not have a hard time believing its legitimacy (Schlosser 333). One of the most persuasive strategies Schlosser uses in his book is his appeal to his audience’s consequential fears of fast food. For most people, living life is a wonderful gift and if anything could be able to take it away, people would doubtlessly avoid it. Schlosser does an effective job at listing the harmful consequences; since he clearly detests the fast food industry’s influence, he does this to help reform against the influence of it. For example, when Schlosser brings up the existence of E. coli O157:H7 in fast food, he does not simply say, â€Å"It is bad† (199). He goes on and elaborates with great detail, giving a story of a six year old boy named Alex who died because of the bug (200). Not only does he dramatize the story but he also narrates the events chronologically to draw the greatest response from the reader. Schlosser writes, â€Å"It progressed to diarrhea†¦Doctors frantically tried to save Alex’s life, drilling holes in his skull to relieve pressure, inserting tubes in his chest to keep him breathing†¦ Toward the end, Alex suffered hallucinations and dementia, no longer recognizing his mother or father† (200). These events, individually, already seem terrifying. Together, it magnifies the effect. Pathos and logos play an important role throughout Schlosser’s entire book. He is clearly against the fast food industry’s ubiquitous influence and as a result, he writes with pathetic appeals, reputable sources, and fear evoking descriptions to abolish its influence on American culture. What he writes has shown to be true; fast food has had a negative effect on society. While fast food may have some benefits, it’s detrimental in the long run. Day by day, the influence of fast food continues to grow and harm the American culture.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Humanities Prejudice And Persecution Coursework Essay Example for Free

Humanities Prejudice And Persecution Coursework Essay Why did the Nazis hate the Jews? Did Nazi Propaganda make the German people prejudiced against the Jewish race? How successful were the policies of the Nazi government in establishing an anti- Semitic society? In this coursework I will be explaining why the Nazi’s hated the Jews. I will explain what propaganda is and if the Nazi propaganda makes the German people prejudiced against the Jewish race, and how successful the policies to establish an anti-Semitic were. The term prejudice means an attitude (about a person or group) that is formed without having all the facts. This usually involves disliking somebody, mostly because of their ethnicity, sexuality, religion etc. Prejudice attitudes are learned. For example children in Nazi Germany were taught to hate Jews, which is like anti- Semitic. Germans were influenced by the use of propaganda to prejudice them and make them discriminate against the Jews. The main reason for this was because of Adolf Hitler. The term discrimination means when treating someone in a different way, usually less well, because they belong to a particular group. The Nazi’s treated the Jews differently, due to their religion and they discriminated the Jews as they way they looked like. The term persecution is to treat an individual or group badly. Hitler persecuted the Jews as soon as he came to power in 1993. Adolf Hitler persecuted Jews in many different ways. The way that Hitler persecuted the Jews were: When Hitler seized power in 1933 he used his powers under the ‘enabling law’ to begin his attack on the Jews. In 1938 the attacks on the Jews became more violent with Himmler the head of the SS and the Gestapo launching Kristallnacht on 11th November 1938. By 1939, half of Germany’s 500,000 Jews had emigrated to escape Nazi persecution. In 1939, Germany invaded Poland which had a much larger population of 3 million Jews. In 1941, Germany invaded Russia which had a population of 5 million Jews. Himmler sent four special trained SS units called ‘Einsatzgruppen battalions’ into German occupied territory and shot at least 1 million Jews. Victims were taken to deserted areas where they were made to dig their own graves and shot. Nazi Propaganda: The Nazi’s propaganda in those days was seen as Anti Semitic. Propaganda was an organized way of media that convinced people this could be done by ideas, information, rumours or opinions. The major purpose for the Nazi’s propaganda was to make the German people prejudiced against the Jews race. Another purpose why propaganda was used was a ‘brainwashing’ of the public convincing them of an ideological viewpoint. The Nazi’s propaganda portrayed the Jews as: fat, greedy, lazy, people with big crooked noses, ugly, dark, hooded eyes, nasty, evil, disloyal, unclean, wealthy, powerful and sly. To do this the Nazi’s made sure that their propaganda’s were everywhere. They were more noticed on, for example; posters on windows, cars, walls and also the Nazi’s propaganda was broadcasted on television and films were also made to show the way Nazi’s prejudiced the Jews and was held on the radio. I will now be showing some propaganda posters, which shows positive posters and negative posters. image01.jpg ‘The External Jew’ Poster from a Museum. This propaganda shows a negative outlook about the Jews; it shows Jews being ugly with a crooked nose. The money portrays that Jews are selfish and are money grabbers in the German society. This poster explains the Jews being selfish as they have a lot of money. The whip in this poster indicates that Jews are trying to take control of the German society. This is a negative propaganda towards the Jews. A German Beer Mat This is a Negative propaganda, which shows a German beer mat with a Jew’s face on the mat. This beer mat that was created by the Germans and was put in all pubs. It also has a picture of a Jew showing a very ugly face. Jews are hated by the Germans. The Germans have created this image on the beer mat to show how much they hate the Jews and to show that they do not have any respect towards the Jews. This beer mat indicates ‘whoever buys from a Jew is a traitor to his people!’ People in pubs promote even more hatred against Jews. Anti- Semitic Propaganda in school An Anti-Semitic cartoon. From the German children’s book 1938 This is a negative propaganda which is taken from a German children’s book. This propaganda has both German children and Jewish children in a school. The stereotype here of the Jewish children is made to make them look horrible, dark and with big crooked noses. There is a distinct with the difference of Jews and Germans. Unlike the Jews the Germans stereotype was seen as clean and tidy and they are kept in a lighter area. From this propaganda you can clearly notify which children are Jewish or German as the stereotype comes in again. This propaganda is also to brainwash the German children. This poster explains Jews being kicked out of school, and is showing that without Jewish children the school is better. Showing the Ideal Aryan Family This propaganda is a Positive poster towards the Nazi’s. Because this is trying to promote the ‘Ideal Aryan Family’. We can see this is a positive propaganda as it shown by the fruit and flowers around the family. A fund raising poster for the Hitler Youth This is a Fund raising poster it shows a stunning Nazi girl. This is a positive propaganda towards the Germans. This poster indicates that Nazi’s are beautiful. They are pure good and generous. The tin displays the swastika, which is the Nazi symbol. Hitler posing with German children in 1936 This is a positive propaganda towards the Germans. This poster shows Hitler posing with 3 children from the Nazi Youth. They look extremely joyful as they are with who they believe was the ‘Saviour of Germany’. This poster explains Adolf Hitler is being seen as a father figure for the children. This also explains Hitler is trying to get their support for himself. A ‘Jew Free Area’ Sign This is a Jew Free area sign. From this sign, it shows that this leads to discrimination towards the Jews. This shows that Jews are restricted from going to swimming baths and public places. This propaganda was used to make the Jews jealous as they were unable to go to some places that had a sign like this. This shows Germans being good-looking and healthy, whereas in other propagandas it shows Jews being horrible and fat. In conclusion when the World War 1 had ended, Hitler convinced all the Germans that the Jews were scapegoats. The Nazi’s then used negative propagandas to discriminate the Jews every possible way. Hitler convinced all the Nazi’s about saying negative things about the Jews, Hitler brainwashed the Nazi’s which they began to hate the Jews. The Germans needed a saviour which Hitler came and took upon this role. Due to the fact that all the brainwashing Hitler started to do to the Germans so they were able to hate the Jews. The propagandas were so successful that it led to Hitler making the laws. By the propagandas being successful and the new laws made by Hitler this led the Jews dying in the holocaust. The holocaust is the name given to the slaughter of six million people, mostly Jews, during the Second War.

Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence And Leadership Education Essay

Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence And Leadership Education Essay One What is the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership? Do you see evidence of the leaders in your organizations displaying EI? Explain. Students answer Research suggests that emotional intelligence is related to several aspects of transformational leadership, such as inspirational motivation, individualized consideration (Palmer, Wall, Burgess, Stough, 2001) and idealized influence (Barling, Slater, Kelloway, 2000). Mills (2009) performed a meta-analysis of 48 studies to examine the relationship between emotional-intelligence and effective leadership. Mills found  strong evidence for the essential elements of emotional intelligence models (Bar-On, 2006; Dulewicz Higgs, 2000; Goleman, Boyatzis, McKee, 2002; Mayer Salovey, 1997) and all four components of transformational leadership. Mills suggested that emotions may be intertwined with transformational leadership skills. Based on these results, Mills asserted that emotional intelligence should no longer be considered a soft skill, but should be incorporated into leadership development programs. Several leaders in my organization exhibit the elements of emotional intelligence, as described by Goleman et al. (2002). I would also describe these leaders as effective and transformational.  Do you think that emotional intelligence is a prerequisite of transformational leadership?   References: Barling, J., Slater, F., Kelloway, E. K. (2000). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study. Leadership Organization Development Journal, 21, 157-161. Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI).  Psicothema, 18 (suppl.), 13-25. Dulewicz, V., Higgs, M. (2000). Emotional intelligence a review and evaluation study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15, 341-372. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Mills, L. B. (2009). A meta-analysis of hate relationship between emotional intelligence and  effective leadership. Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 3, 22-38. Palmer, B. R.,  Walls, M., Burgess, Z., Stough, C. (2001). Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Leadership Organization Development Journal, 22, 5-10.  Ã‚   Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books. My answer. Emotional intelligence is related to leadership. Its true since the history of emotional intelligence dates back to the times of Darwins work. According to Thorndike (1920) emotional intelligence is defined as the skill of understanding and managing other people. This ability to understand other peoples feelings, fears and motivation is what leadership is all about. In the thesis of Wayne Payne a study of emotional intelligence in 1985 is first defined in terms of the traits related to leadership but the distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence is brought in at a later stage in relating personality and leadership. But in my view its true that the two are related. Reference: Thorndike, R.K. (1920). Intelligence and Its Uses. Harpers Magazine 140, 227-335. Question 2 What is the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership? Do you see evidence of the leaders in your organizations displaying EI? Explain. Students answer Emotional intelligence (EI) is a competency, which is considered critical for leaders. Leaders who display emotional intelligence are more likely to have better results within the organization (Goleman, 1998). Emotional intelligence is a form of intelligence does not correlate with a technical ability or a leaders expertise.   EI is a soft skill that enables a leader to motivate a team. Many times leaders are promoted into leadership positions based on individual contributory success. They may have excelled as an individual, but are unable to successfully lead a team. According to Goleman (1998), EI is what sets the two individuals apart. Standard IQ and work experience are important abilities, however, Golemans study proved emotional intelligence to be a critical piece of leadership. This study sited that without EI, a leader will not have the ability to become a great leader. The study also correlated low EI with low performance. Leaders who scored low on emotional intelligence tests had a tendency to be terminated or move out of the leadership position voluntarily (Goleman, 1998). Our organization uses a written test called the Previsior. This is an assessment to measure an employees compatibility with our organizations culture and values. We have had frontline employees who worked for the company for 10 years, apply for a supervisory position and fail the test on a poor match for culture. When I argued the results with our human capital partner. I was told the test was not wrong, and if we deviated for one- it could be viewed as discrimination later. While I think that humans should have the ability to override the decision that a computer make- I think the computer made the right decision for that particular employee. It is a difficult story to tell as a leader though. We say that we promote from within, and then when an employee fails the test we write them off- without offering classes or assistance to pass the test in the future. Reference: Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, 76, 93-102. My answer. Its true from the works of Goleman he talks more on the links between emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness in most of his documentations. From these documentaries although the student does not bring out the relation clearly, according to Geleman its a culture that can be adapted but brings in the issues of cultural intelligence.The researchers Alon Higgins (2005) in their research argue that Cultural intelligence is more important than IQ in a work place. It influences a persons work performance and career success. They move forward to say that emotional intelligence is not only important in our career or business but also in life and leadership. Unlike management, it is all about coping with change while cultural intelligence support this since its defined as the capability for successful adaptation to new culture and unfamiliar setting. Reference: Alon, I. J.M. Higgins. (2005) Global leadership success through emotional and cultural intelligences. Business Horizons publisher. Pp.501-512 Question 3 What is the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership? Do you see evidence of the leaders in your organizations displaying EI? Explain. Students answer According to the University of Phoenix Week Seven Lecture, Emotional intelligence is a form of intelligence unrelated to technical or functional expertise. Leaders who display emotional intelligence possess a set of social skills that enable them to guide and motivate followers to achieve company goals (para. 1). Leadership is a persons ability to influence others towards achievement of a common goal. In reviewing the above description of EI, it is stated that EI is social skills that enable them [leaders] to guide and motivate followers to achieve company goals. It seems clear that if EI is not synonymous with leadership, it is extremely closed (directly synergistic). EI plays an essential and direct role in the effectiveness of leadership. Without EI, a leader is essentially not effective and unable to lead or motivate others to achieve common goals. Some of the leaders in my organization display strong EI skills, while others do not. For example, one is much better at maintaining relationships with others and has an open door policy. The other is very much task oriented and very ineffective at building or maintaining relationships. The first one is a very effective team builder, while the other demoralizes and frustrates everyone. Everyone wants to follow the first, while people only follow the other in-so-much as they have to due to his legitimate power (from his position).  Ã‚  Were it not for his legitimate power,  no one in the organization would give him the time of day.   The difference  between these two leaders has shown me the critical importance EI plays in leadership.   Reference Leadership and emotions. (2010). Retrieved from University of Phoenix website: My answer. Just like the first question the student has clearly stated the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence.The only problem he does not have citations in his text to support the ideas. From the works of Salovey (1990) describes emotional intelligence as based on the ability of a leader to understand their own emotions and that of colleagues they work with. He describes three approaches to EI as trait approach, competency and emotional approach. From his text he does not shed out correctly the emotional trait of the leader he claims not to be corporative with other employees he could only be strict to his principles of leadership. Reference: Salovey, P. Mayer, J.D. (1990).Emotional Intelligence, Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Pp 185-211 Question 4 What subjects or topic areas should be included in leadership development programs in the public and private sector? Why did you select these topics? Are leadership training programs today effective? Explain. Students answer The purpose of a leadership program is to prepare leaders with practical strategies that can help them to develop personal plans for developing their leadership potential. Similar topics should be included in leadership training for both the private and the public sector leaders.   One may argue to say that government leaders need addition training in ethics, truth and transparency, but these issues are important to all leaders.  A leadership development plan should include: A strategy guide to develop full potential as leaders Identify techniques to improve your communication skills Develop strategies to manage conflict effectively Teach issues related to the delegation and evaluation of work performance by others Describe ways in which to enhance the leaders ability to cope with change, manage stress, and improve time management skills Provide strategies to improve your critical thinking skills Assist the leader in developing a plan for a rewarding career My answer What the student has presented is true. Leadership programmes remain vital even today both in public and private sectors due to the dynamic demands of management towards result appraisal and performance oriented way of leadership. All topics on leadership are meant for service delivery in leadership that a leader is an individual who is able to manage and lead others in a achieving a set goal. Just as in the case of leadership and emotional intelligence adapting to the different cultures is the important thing in delivery because different organization has got different cultures of management. I think addition of IT in leadership is a vital topic to be included with the rise of computer era in management. Question 5 Why did you select these topics? Are leadership training programs today effective? Explain. Students answer I selected these topics because, these  topics are crucial to the success of leaders within  our organization.  I also feel that  senior leaders did not provide  our middle  management team with  the tools that  are needed for progression to the next level.  Leadership training programs have  recognized needs of the leaders, but since the downturn in the economy- resources are scare and companies are looking for leaders  who can increase revenues  and produce results quickly.   These  leaders have a proven record of accomplishment and require minimal training.    Leadership is a subject that continues to be examined and even discussed in the educational system for youth. In the public and private sector there are three subjects that should be included, which are honesty and integrity. According to Wren (1998), integrity is the correspondence between word and deed and honesty refers to being truthful or non-deceitful. The two form the foundation of a trusting relationship between leader and followers. These subjects should be included because so many in leadership lack honesty and integrity. The primary leader of an organization or prominent figure shapes the morale or culture of that company, city, country, etcThe behaviors of the leader can have a great impact, thus, learning the cause and effect of being dishonest and lacking integrity should be taught. Leadership training programs are effective today, because they teach extensively how to lead others. Its only effectiveness lies in the person being trained, and what they expect to rec eive. Often times, one can have the best process that has been proven to work; however the individual can be nonreceptive. This does not mean the program is insufficient; it is the persons desire to be trained. Reference Wren, J.T. (1998). Leaders companion: Insights on leadership through the ages. New York: My answer. I agree with the write that leadership training programs are important and they teach how to extensively lead others. These training programs are important if one needs to progress to management level in an organization. The training will at the end improve the companys productivity. This is achieved by adding value to the quality of work hence bringing in new customers. This takes a company to a different level and gaining a competitive advantage over competitors.Companys spend a lot of money in researching about a specific strategic plan and also in implementing it. It would be unfortunate if the leaders are not trained to move hand in hand with these changes. This can be done through invitation of guest speakers who may talk ton whole employs to get the desired company expectations.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Issues in human resource management

Issues in human resource management Human Resource Management is defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisations most valued assets, the people working there, who individually or collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives. Boxall et al (2007) describe HRM as the management work and people towards desired ends. John Storey (1989) believes that HRM can be regarded as a set of interrelated policies with on ideological and philosophical underpinning. He suggests four aspects that constitute the meaningful version of HRM: A particular constellation of beliefs and assumptions. A strategic thrust informing decisions about people management. The central involvement of line managers. Reliance upon a set of levers to shape the employment relationship. The overall purpose of HRM is to ensure that the organisation is able to achieve success through people. As Ulrich and (1990) remark: HRM systems can be the source of organisational capabilities that allow firms to learn and capitalize on new opportunities. Dyer and Holder (1988) analyse managements HR goals under the dimensions of contribution (what kind of employee behaviour is expected?), composition (what headcount, staffing ratio and skills mix?), competence (what general level of ability is desire), and commitment (what level of employee attachment and identification?). Caldwell (2004) has identified twelve policy goals for HRM: Managing people as assets that are fundamental to the competitive advantage of the organisation; Aligning HRM policies with business policies and corporate strategy; Developing a close fit of HR policies, procedures and systems with one another; Creating a flatter and more flexible organization capable of responding more quickly to change; Encouraging team working and cooperation across internal organizational boundaries; Creating a strong customer-first philosophy throughout the organisation; Empowering employees to manage their own self-development; Developing reward strategies designed to support a performance- driven culture; Improving employee involvement through better internal communication; Building greater employee commitment to the organisation; Increasing line management responsibility for HR policies; Developing the facilitating role of managers as enablers. EX1: Supermarket giant Tesco is offering a massive  £300,000 salary plus bonuses as it starts its search for a new group HR director, Personnel Today can reveal. The HR job, the biggest in the private sector is up for a grabs after Clare Chapman accepted the role of director-general of workforce at the Department of Health. The new confirms that Chapman took a serious cut overall earning to join the public sector in probably the most high-profile and challenging HR job in the UK. She will now earn between 3200,000 and  £220,000for overseeing the people management of 1.3 million staff, a number that dwarfs Tesco 270,000 employees. (Personnel Today, 19 September 2006). But as Dyer and Holder (1998) emphasize: HRM goals vary according to competitive choices, technologies or services tangibles, characteristics of their employees, the state of the labour market and the societal regulations and the national culture. And Boxall, Purcelland and Wright (2007) note that the general motives o HRM are multiples. Managing people at work does not take place in a vacuum. Wider econic, technological, political and social forces influence and shape human resource management (HRM) strategy, policies and practices, global and local economic developments sometimes having an indirect or a multiplier effect. EX2: The electric Giant Siemens, for example, overtakes Philips Electronics, so Philips downsizes and lays off workers. Belt -tightening workers then press for cheaper services from local traders and are prepared to work for lower wages, thereby causing an adjustment in the local labour markets and in the HRM decisions and activities of those organisations affected. William (1993) is one of the number of theorists who have argued the importance of understanding the relationship between economic stability or instability and HRM, but it is not just the economic context that matters. New manufacturing and services technologies, new processes (eg. total quality management and International Organization for Standardization-ISO 9000) and the developments in global telecommunications networks have important ramifications or organizational and work design, and for HRM. Just as significant are demographic changes and the restructuring labour markets that affect the supply of and demand for human resource (HR). Past fluctuations in the birth rate in Anglo-Saxon economies are producing changes in the labour force composition. Human Resource strategies and practices are better understood when they are examined in the broader economic, technological, political and social context that help to shape them ( Maurice and Sorge, 2000). The political factors The political context is the most complex and the most difficult to analyse, both because of its power to shape the nature of the employment relationship and because of its effect on the other contexts. As a result of that power, the social elites in whose hands it lies enjoy immense influence in society, in the political system and in the determination of the states policies and actions ( milliband, 1969). In a social demeocracy, the state has six major responsibilities: Protecting national sovereignty Establishing a legal system Developing economic policies Building basic services and infrastructure Protecting vulnerable people Protecting the environment All these state activities affect business and managers in some way. Human Resource Managers in this case will have for responsibility to educate their staff about the political ideology and continually lobby and seek to influence the policies of the State. HR has help shape and regulates employment relations, and reconcile the conflict that inevitably arises in employment. EX3: Chinas government is worried that the growing gap between rich and poor could provoke more instability this year. The government has announced that the narrowing of the income gap will be one of its main priorities this year and will be at the top of the agenda when Chinas national legislature holds its annual meeting. (Geoffrey York, Globe and Mail, 9 February 2006, P. A1). EX4: Protests against Frances new job law escalate Ten of thousands of students marched in protests of a new law that makes it easier to hire and fire young workers. More protests, in which the students will be joined by Frances main unions, are expected. Last month, the countrys government passed a law that it claims will ease the crisis of high unemployment, especially among young disadvantaged young people in the suburbs. CANADIAN HR REPORTER, 17 MARCH 2006 The social factors Change s in the proportion of the population participating in the labour market and chamging demeographics determine the size and composition of the workforce. In addition, people entering the workplace bring with them different attitudes and values relating to work, parentwood, leisure, notions of fairness and organizational loyalty. EX5: IBM labels diversity a strategic imperative. Hiring women, gays, and minorities is about more than doing the right thing. Fishing ius more fun says IBMs dean of diversity, but golf is the game of business which is why, he explains, Big Blue has installed putting greens at some of its on-site day care centers. IBM should be place where people feel comfortable being popenly gay and where women and people from minority group backgrounds have equal opportunity for promotion and advancement, said Mr Childs, who is black. And anyone who has a problem with that need not apply to IBM, he added. IBMs effort to diversify the work force has moved from being a moral imperative to being a strategic imperative. (Virginia Galt, Globe and Mail, 24 June 2002, P.83) Demographic projections are based on the most basic demographic fact: every year each person gets older. Analysing human behaviour to age offers insights into socioeconomic variables. A 30-years old, for instance is more likely to be married than a 20- years old. A-55 year old probably views work differently from25 year old. The ability to forecast behaviour according to age has the advantage of allowing HR managers to know more about the composition of the workforce and their needs. Demographic data are important source of information that can help HR managers in such areas as recruitment and selection, training and rewards management. EX6: Mandatory retirement attacked Government should ban mandatory retirement at age 65 because it discriminates against people who are capable of working and who often need the money, Ontario Human Rights Commissioner Keith Norton said. Mandatory retirement, where age is used to determine the persons employment status, is unacceptable from a human rights perspective, Mr Norton told Queens park news conference. Whether people seek employment and how they respond to HR practices, designed to elicit both control and the consent of employees, will depend on cultural values. Culture is a collective product, consisting of processes and artefacts, produced over long periods of time by large members of individuals, which enables the past to be carried in the present and the future (Parker et al, 2003). Changing culture values have an impact on HRM activities. Changes in traditional gender roles and new lifestyles, for example, change participation rates in the labour market and the way in which workers are motivated and managed in the workplace. The notion of a work-life balance for instance for employees, the need to balance work and leisure/family activities is a hot area in HRM research that is receiving increasing attention from policy- makers and managers (Purcell, 2004; Surges and Guest, 2004). Research on employer work-life balance strategies can have important benefits for organization. E vidence suggests that, in the face of a highly competitive labour market, work-life policies and practices are necessary for attracting, retaining and motivating highly skilled knowledge workers (Scholarios and Marks, 2004). Work- life boundary and work-life balance strategies are closely related to the commitment that knowledge workers give to their employer and are, in addition, necessary for creative and innovative behaviours and organizational culture (De Cieri et al, 2005). Technological factors A number of authors have argued that the use of technology within HR not only makes HR activity more efficient, but may also facilitate a change in emphasis for HRM to become more strategic within the organisation (Lawler and Mohrman 2003; Shrivastava and Shaw 2004). Literature has commented for the idea of HRM as a strategic business partner (Ulrich 1997) rather than in the administrative or transactional role that it has held historically. With the growth of information technology, much administrative can be accomplished using self-service or automated systems, therefore the HR function can, and increasingly does make significant contribution to building a firm that is staffed by the right human capital to carry out the work of the company, and enable the accomplishment of business strategy ( Lawler and Mohrman 2003: 16). Snell et al (2002) have suggested that HR can meet the challenge of simultaneously becoming more strategic, flexilble, cost efficient and customer oriented by lev eraging information technology. IT can lower administrative costs, increase productivity, speed response times, improve decision making and enhance customer service all at the same time. EX7: Norwich Union is the largest insurer in the UK and is part of the Aviva Insurance Group that has more than 60,000 employees. Human Resources within Norwich Union are managed using shared service model. The company uses an Oracle HR information system (HRI) with an extensive system of manager self-service. Managers can use the system to inform fundamental changes with regard to their employees. These includes: to change salary, cost centre and allowances, process leavers, update absences, produce reports, process overtime payments and compare salaries and performance ratings. The company also uses a degree of employee self-service with employees being able to: maintain personal details and emergency contac, provide information on their pay, request holidays, record absence, change bank account details and look at performance rating and salary history. HRM guide, October 2004 The technology and communication infrastructure can facilitate virtual working and learning. EX8: Nestle, with over 2000,000 employees spread across hundreds of locations, has adopted distance learning approach based on e-learning with courses structured around short modules of between five and seven minutes duration.(Marquardt, 2004). The role of HR managers will be to train employees to adapt with technological changes as it arises through training process in order to face change in the competitive environment. Economic factors As part of the economic context, globalization is the defining political economic paradigm of our time. In term of external context, globalization has affected all aspects in Business. In term of HR strategy, HRM policies and practices have to be aligned to the global activities of transnational enterprises and be able to attract and retain employees operating internationally but within different national employment regimes. EX9: China, India and the USA will drive growth A new research from the Economist Intelligence Unit predicts that more than half the growth in the worlds GDP over the next 15 years will come from China(27%), the US(16%), and India(12%). The foresight 2020 research report, sponsored by Cisco System, bases its predictions on new long term economic forecasts, a survey of more than 1,650 executives and in-depth interviews with senior business leaders. HRM guide, April 2006. The growth of the global economy has resulted in significant sections of the labour market being influenced by the investment decisions and production and HR strategies of transnational corporations. These transnational corporations such as Toyota, Unilever, Ford, have established a global network for research and development, production and marketing. These corporations integrate global resources and outsource some of their work to preferred suppliers to achieve cost efficiencies while maintaining the capability to respond to local markes. These global business strategies strongly affect the nature of local markets and therefore HRM initiatives and practices. EX10: Employees urges British gas to reconsider plan to move 2000 jobs to India Angry British Gas employees are campaigning for the company to reverse its decision to transfer 2,000 back-office jobs to India. British Gas plans to close sites in Manchester, Oldham and Solihull as part of a  £430m over-haul of its customer billing system. People management, 15 August 2005. Human Resource Management is a body of knowledge and a set of policies and practices that shape the nature of work and regulate the employment relationship. These practices suggest three questions: What do HRM managers do? What affects what they do? How do they do what they do? To answer these questions, we draw on the work of Harzing (2000), Millward et al. (2000) and Ulrich (1997) to identify key HRM functions. These are HR policies, programmes and practices designed in response to organizational goals and contingencies, and managed to achieve those goals and gain competitive advantage. Planning: preparing forecasts for future HR needs in the light of an organisations environment, mission and objectives, strategies and internal strengths and weaknesses, including its structure, culture, technology and leadership. Integrating: appropriately integrating or linking HRM with the strategic management process of the company and coordinating bundles of HR practices to achieve the companys desired goals. Staffing: obtaining people with the appropriate skills, abilities, knowledge and experience to fill jobs in the organization. Key practices are HR planning, job analysis, recruitment and selection. Developing: analysing learning requirement to ensure that employees possess the knowledge and the skills to perform satisfactorily in their jobs or to advance in the organization. Performance appraisal can identify employee key skills and competencies. Motivating: the design and administration of reward system. HR practices include job evaluation, performance appraisal, pay and benefits. Designing: the design and maintenance of work system that are safe and promote employee health and workplace wellness in order to attract and retain a competent workforce and comply with regulations. Managing relationship: processes and structures that build cooperative relationship among employees, between employer and trade union. Managing change: which involve helping others to envision the future, communication this vision, changing mindsets and setting clear expectations for performance. Evaluating: designing the procedures and processes that measure, evaluate and communicate the value-added of HR practices and the entire HR system to the organization. EX 11: The 21st century chief human resources officer (CHRO) A new report from Deloitte Consulting, Strategist Steward: The evolving role of the Chief Human Resources Officer outlines the challenges, processes and performance measures facing todays CHRO. According to the report, the modern CHRO is required increasingly to act as both strategist and steward. To quote Deloittes media release, they are leaders who not only manage the HR function and operations team, but also collaborate directly with the CEO and board of directors on a range of critical. Deloitte Consultings Strategist and Steward report is available at htt:// Human resource planning Human resource planning is the process by which the management of an organization determines its future human resource requirements and how the existing human resources can be effectively utilized to fulfil these requirements. In the process, the management strives to have the appropriate number and the appropriate kind of people at the appropriate place. Human resource planning is one of the HR practices that is a futuristic form of assessment. It tries to assess the human resource requirements in advance keeping the organizational objectives, production schedules, and the fluctuations in the background. The basic purpose of human resource planning is to have an accurate estimate of the number of employees required with the matching skills to meet the organizational goals. It helps organization to maintain and improve its ability to achieve its goals by developing strategies that will in optimum contribution of human resource. In order to gain sustainable competitive advantage, Stainer recommends the following nine strategies for human resource planners: They should collect, maintain, and interpret relevant information regarding human resources. They should report periodically human resource objectives and requirements, existing employees, and allied features of human resource. They should develop measures of human resource utilization as components of forecasts of human resource requirements along with independent validation. They should employ suitable techniques to effective allocation of work with a view to improving human resource utilization. They should conduct research to determine factors hampering the contribution of the individuals and groups to the organization with the view to modifying or removing these handicaps. They should develop and employ methods of economic assessment of human resources to reflect its features as income generator and cost and accordingly improve the quality of decisions affecting the human resource. They should evaluate the procurement, promotion, and retention of effective human resource. They should analyse the dynamic process of recruitment, promotion, and loss to the organization and control these processes with a view to maximizing the individual and group performance without involving high cost. They should develop procedures and techniques to determine the requirements of different types of human resource over a period of time from the standpoint organizational goals. Recruitment and selection: Recruitment and selection have always been critical processes for organizations. Recruitment and selection are vital stages in the formation with an emphasis on a two way flow communication; employees are attracted to and select an organization and the work on offer as much as employers select employees. Thus, employers need to see the attraction and retention of employees as part of the evolving employment relationship, based on a mutual and reciprocal understanding of expectations, as well as an attempt to predict how a potential employee might behave in the future and make a contribution to the organization requirements. This is very important when the labour market is tight in other words when there is a strong competition. The purpose of selection is to select the most valuable candidate who would meet the requirements of the job. There is a wide variation s in recruitment and selection practices, reflecting an organizations strategy and its philosophy towards the management of people. Employees seen as part of the primary internal market become the focus for the bundle of human resources practices intended to bring about increased motivation, an increased acceptance of responsibilities, deepened skills and greater commitment, providing the organization with a competitive edge. Human resource planning Staff needs, option internal/external Recruitment Pool of applicants Selection Job performance The stages of recruitment and selection EX12: Blind jobseekers brought up speed Speed recruitment days based on the speed dating format, are being used to boost the number of visually impaired people in work. The charity Blind in Business set up 10 years ago by three blind graduates to make it easier for visually impaired university-leavers to get jobs, believes the events are a way of matching employees and candidates who may otherwise never meet. Human resource development Technology, global markets, customer expectations and competition have all contributed to the view that organizations need to achieve high performance working leading generation of high value added products and services for customers, and trust and commitment from enthusiastic employees (International Labour Organization, 2000).Many organization now claim to take a holistic view that embraces the idea of learning individual and organizational levels as a crucial source of competitive advantage. EX13: Ernst Young: Building your professional career At Ernst Young, you can look forward to enriching your knowledge and experience. Whilst we expect you to take a proactive approach to the management of your career, we also provide considerable support. We provide many opportunities for you to specialize in an industry sector or in particular markets, and, in addition, excellent opportunities exist for our best people to develop experience through international assignments. To provide the in depth learning required to support your development, we offer a comprehensive suite of high quality training courses. Financial times, 24 October 2008 p.16 Flexibility plan The flexible firm model by Atkinson and Meager, 1985, p.2 which draws into a simple framework the new elements in employers manpower practices, bringing out the relationship between various practices and their appropriateness for different companies and groups of workers. This model identified four types of flexibility: Functional: a firms ability to adjust and deploy the skills of its employees to match the tasks required by its changing workload, production methods and technology. Numerical: a firms ability to adjust the level of labour inputs to meet fluctuations in output. Distancing strategy: the replacement of internal workers external subcontractors that is, putting some work, such as running the firms canteen. Financial: support for the achievement of flexibility through the pay and reward system. These flexibilities are achieved through a division of employees into the core workforce and the peripheral workforce. The core group is composed of those workers expected to deliver functional flexibility and includes those with firm specific skills and high discretionary elements in their work. The peripheral group is composed of a number of different workers. One category might be directly employed by the firm to perform work with low discretionary elements. Another might be employed as required on a variety of contracts, and the final category comprises trainees, some of whom may be prepared for eventual transfer to the core group. Functional flexibility could be presented as: Job enlargement Job enrichment Job rotation Training and development In the present competitive and dynamic environment, it has become essential for organization to build and sustain competencies that would provide them sustainable competitive advantage. No enterprise can last long in a highly competitive society unless it keeps pace with the emerging market trends and technological changes. The training programme can be defines as a process through which an organization seeks to attain the objectives of performance enhancement by developing the skills of a set of learners or by fulfilling the learning requirements of an identified group of employees. Development on the other hand is holistic, often aiming at overall personality development. The content of a development programme includes conceptual or theoretical inputs, perspective strategic thinking or focusing on behavioural aspects such as leadership skills, managing teams, groups. We may say that training is imparted to operatives, whereas development is a process of grooming mainly used for exe cutives and managers. The benefits for organization are: There will be an increase in the intellectual capital of the company Training helps in achieving higher standards of quality, building up a satisfactory organizational structure, delegating authority, and motivating employees to perform better. Employee turnover and absenteeism are reduced Wastage is minimized Jon enlargement and job enrichment programmes can be implemented easily Making training a continuous affair in the company can strengthen employee loyalty. EX14: Getting the value from NVQs at the Northern Snooker Centre The Northern Snooker Centre Ltd is a long established family business in Leeds. With over 33 staffs, the company has developed from having 9 snooker tables to over 27,plus 16 pools tables and three bar and lounge areas that are open 24 hours a day and 365 days a year. The family owners have consistently worked towards developing a customer focused culture and ethos based on staff training and development, teamwork and leadership. The company regards the teams as the whole workforce and has therefore sought to provide learning opportunities for everyone, using NVQs as a key mechanism. June williamson, company secretary. Daily Mail, 06 January 2007 p.12 Performance management and appraisal Performance appraisal can be described as the process of reviewing employees performance, documenting the review, and delivering it to the employee in the form of feedback. The information collected from performance measures is used for compensation packages, employee development, identification of training needs, providing feedback, and development of the employee. EX 15: RBS examines its people practices. A project aimed at identifying which people practices drive customer service and business performance has been launched by Royal Bank of Scotland Group (RBS). The initiative, called Service Excellence through People will bring together key data on 4,000 of RBSs retail bank branches worldwide in a bid to take its leading edge human capital strategy to the next level. RBS has engaged Harvard Business School and its survey consultants to carry out the study. Rima Manocha, People Management, 28 July 200 The human resource of an organization constitutes its entire workforce. Human resource management is responsible for selecting and inducting competent people, training them, facilitating and motivating them to perform at high levels of efficiency, and providing mechanisms to ensure that they maintain affiliation with the company. Change is inevitable in life and in the case of organizations, the general tendency is to complacent with policies and practices that have been successful in the past. Human resource , which has been a staff function, has now assumed a strategic function, as it has to coordinate with other functional areas in forecasting the future and gearing up human resource to meet the future challenges. REFERENCES Rima Manocha, People Management, 28 July 200 June williamson, company secretary. Daily Mail, 06 January 2007 p.12 Financial times, 24 October 2008 p.16 People management, 15 August 2005 HRM guide, April 2006 Marquardt, 2004 De Cieri et al, 2005 HRM guide, October 2004 Virginia Galt, Globe and Mail, 24 June 2002, P.83 CANADIAN HR REPORTER, 17 MARCH 2006 Geoffrey York, Globe and Mail, 9 February 2006, P. A1 (Personnel Today, 19 September 2006).