Friday, September 4, 2020

WORKING WITH AND LEADING PEOPLE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

WORKING WITH AND LEADING PEOPLE - Essay Example All things considered, the maintenance, choice, just as the enlistment procedure is basic for each firm. In enlisting another part, there is a need to have an alternate archive, the firm should comply with the legal laws, and go past the consecutive system of choosing (Bell 2012).The human asset office has the order to choose the correct individuals and set up a report that subtleties different principles just as guidelines. The administration of the eatery needs to set up a record itemizing different perspectives, for example, the endorsement of enrollment. The concerned divisions who require another laborer at that point send a draft, which has a depiction of the position and the fundamental training just as aptitudes that are required. Accordingly, the draft is affirmed and sent to the HR division. The choice just as enlistment process starts after the administration gives an endorsement with respect to the solicitation. The endorsement ought to have an electronic duplicate that has the notice just as the duplicate of the draft. In the record, there is additionally the portrayal of the situation for which the café needs to enlist new learners. This is basic for each firm since it can't change the situation after the notice of the post. It is likewise to be comprehended that the post should be affirmed by the administration and ought to incorporate the duty of the new staff (Dessler 2011). After the position depiction there is the publicizing segment, which should be affirmed by the executive. Through the ad, the firm will get the correct up-and-comers and should be possible utilizing different channels, for example, the utilization of print media, open promotion, or electronic methods. The promotion will likewise remember declaration for the opportunity, the necessary skills, and installment among others. The HR office should comply with the lawful methods of ad (Bell 2012). In choosing a candidate, I would

Wednesday, August 26, 2020


My name is Frederica Krebs. I am a 29-year-old independent columnist. I expound on everything occurring in Germany, and afterward offer them to papers and magazines everywhere throughout the world. I am the main child of a World War 1 saint, and my mom who carts me. I am separated with one child who lives with his mom. I'm youthful, blonde, blue-looked at, solid, and unadulterated German. I'm what you would believe Hitler perfect German to be. As opposed to putting stock In the Whimper republic, I put stock In democracy.I consider he Whimper republic to be week and defenseless. I don't Like what these gatherings of hooligans who call themselves â€Å"Nazis† are attempting to do. I mean they are attempting to accuse the war for the Jews, socialists, and the dissidents. Saying how Hitler will take the Germans back to their rancher enormity. My own dad concurs with the Nazis, he is as of now anxious to free the nation of outsiders and particularly Jews. Be that as it may, he does n't realize that I have a Jewish sweetheart, named Anna. Likewise my better half is bringing up our child to get one of these criminals.He is just five and as of now has a place with some Nazi out association. I will take the necessary steps to ensure that these individuals don't harm our nation. Second Entry February 27,1933 what they have faith in however what he puts stock in. I then again won't yield and decide not to make the vow and persevere for what I have faith in. I will attempt to add to attempting to overcome Hitler as much as Possible. Since I am a Journalist I can expound on all the awful things happening to our country.After expounding on these occasions I will offer them to papers and magazines everywhere throughout the world, so they would now the amount of a danger Hitler isn't just to the individuals of Germany yet in addition to the world. Third Entry May 10,1933 Today is the day of the book consuming children going around shouting like the consuming of the books doesn't trouble them, they don't have the foggiest idea how much books would help them in light of the fact that their small kids doing what they thought was correct. The Nazis and police are thumping on individuals' entryways and seizing their books, I know many individuals who don't concur with this however would prefer not to place the lives of their family in danger.Me being a Journalist I don't concur with this the slightest bit not having books would hang how we suspect as much we wont have our own suppositions, we would all have similar musings since we are just permitted to peruse comparable books. I should go to this book consuming later tonight and I will have a choice to make whether I need to take an interest in this and toss a book into the fire or attempt and prevent them from tossing the books, so as I have returned you realize I have settled on the choice to Join in on the burning.A young man came up to me and attempted to place a book in my grasp, as I rejected a w arrior strolls up and stands directly behind the kid gazing at me and says, on the off chance that you have rust in what Hitler is doing you will take the book and toss it in. I would not like to get captured and free the opportunity of getting the message out to the world about what's going on here so I took the book and hurled it. It was a hard activity however I did it for my nation. Fourth Entry August 1,1936 I am here in Berlin for the Olympic games to help my nation obviously. I stroll into the stadium.There are such a large number of individuals yet not Just Germans different nationalities are here to root for their nation. I feel as though wherever like they were keeping a close eye on me. I likewise notice some American correspondents were additionally there, possibly this is my opportunity to get out to the world about what was going on here. The individuals here would think nothing about what's happening here in light of the fact that Hitler had all the individuals from d ifferent nations. I trust I could get an opportunity of talking with one of the U. S journalist yet it won't be simple with all the AS officials around watching.If they see me endeavoring to converse with the columnists I will be captured and rebuffed possibly murdered. I have concluded that attempting to converse with the columnists would be excessively hazardous so I won't attempt and converse with them. Provided that I get captured I would leave my better half who is Jewish alone and might escape, and my dad would discover that I was conflicting with Hitler and he puts stock in what Hitler is doing. In the event that I got captured it could likewise place my family in peril who recognizes what Hitler would do with them.Fifth Entry September 29,1936 Today I am having a private supper with Josef Gobbles a companion and specialist of Hitler. Eats is likewise a Journalist yet he is one for the Nazi party and has been since 1926. I needed this gathering provided that I could find a ne w Line of work as a Journalist for the Nazi party, after I win their trust I could without much of a stretch get the word out to the world and the could never speculate it was me. At the supper we examined my accepts to be on that Hitler is doing and what they expect of me as a Journalist.When I took a gander at Gobbles I would have never figured he would be in the Nazi party since he was an inverse of the ideal German that Hitler portrayed. He was little, dull and disabled with a perpetual limp. After I saw him I realized I could land the Position since I was the ideal German that Hitler depicted, and for what reason would they turn down a reflect German. I would likewise have the option to keep my better half safe on the off chance that I Join the Nazi party. Toward the finish of the supper he said he might want to extend to me an Employment opportunity to work with him as a Journalist, so I shook his hand and happily accepted.Sixth Entry November 10,1938's everything beginning to day what the papers called Charlatanic: the evening of broken glass. I look outside and see every single Jewish business being burned to the ground, or seriously harmed. Not exclusively are their organizations being demolished they are being pulled out from their homes a great deal of the occasions hauled out and beaten. The Nazi hordes were Sioux towards them more regrettable than eve seen before now and then beating the Jews in the city by the hundreds. I have a decision to make, do I attempt and spare my better half and hazard being gotten or do I Just surrender her to them and never observe her again.I can't do that to her I have to discover a spot for her to shroud a spot they could never think to look here. The horde is nearly to my home I need to think rapidly or I will free her to those beasts. I advised her to go outback and under the steps outside there's an opening since he was the one that put in the paper to do this so all he would do is urn me in. As I began to quiet e ntryway I hear a thump at my entryway however there was no yelling I open it and before my eyes was a family, a Jewish family that had gotten away and requested my help.I needed to think yet think rapidly cause the crowd was distinctly down the road, so I instructed them to go where I had advised my sweetheart to o and hold up till I came and got them. The horde was at last at my entryway they inquired as to whether I had any Jews in here I said no. The individuals burst in and began to assault my home they at long last left following ten minutes of looking and discovered nothing, my home a wreck however they don't discovered anything. Seventh Entry November 1 2, 1938 I have moved away from my old home to attempt to escape from all the madness.I despite everything have work so sick Just accomplish the work from here I live close to Auschwitz Brinkmen. Life here is beneficial for me however much to my dismay when I moved around here that I moved close to a camp. In the first place, I thought ghettos were for Just poor people, presently I realize that the Germans were constraining the Jews to live there and afterward moving them to death camps. I can take a walk and see this camp and see the individuals in it however I can't successfully support them. I see the work they need to do, they look all drowsy and beat, you can see the watchmen hollering and beating them when they stop working.I see gatherings of small children, seniors, and frail go into these structures while being accompanied by troops so they couldn't run, the gatekeepers close the entryway and the gathering could never come out. I comprehended what had befallen them yet I never knew how it was occurring. I know these sorts of things IM Just an essayist. It is difficult to watch this all occurrence wishing I could accomplish something however chance being executed myself and loosing the trust of Gobbles. Eighth Entry November 4,1943 I have seen the slaughter, presently I have lost the little regard I had for the German warriors, Hitler, and Hammier.Hammier couldn't care less what number of Jews bite the dust due to his prosperity. Being a Journalist I must be to there seeing a side I had never observed of these troopers and pioneers. I saw dead bodies on the ground arranged in columns like they were in a sequential construction system. Be that as it may, the most noticeably terrible was I really observing the killings, they had them line up and like a discharging crew they shot them in the neck. A portion of the individuals were even still alive after they were shot and they Just feet them there.But regardless of whether you pivot to attempt to turn away there were more trucks brimming with more Jews holding back to be butchered. The miserable thing was it wasn't Just garments so they were executed stripped. An ever increasing number of trucks travel every which way, emptying at that point murdering the helpless they were feeble and hungry. This is one of the most exceedingly terrible things I had ever observed. Ninth Entry October 8,1944 â€Å"First they took the land Then they took the individuals Then they took me and there was nobody left The devils in mask Creating disorder toward each path What we sure can do Never let this agony happen again. End My name is Frederica Krebs. I am a 29-year-old independent writer. I expound on everything occurring in Germany, and afterward offer them to papers and magazines everywhere throughout the world. I am the main child of a World War 1 saint, and my mom who carts me. I am separated with one child who lives with his mom. I'm youthful, blonde, blue-peered toward, solid, and unadulterated German. I'm what you would believe Hitler perfect German to be. As opposed to having confidence In the Whimper republic, I have confidence In democracy.I consider he Whimper republic to be week and powerless. I don't Like what these gatherings of hooligans who call themselves â€Å"Nazis† are attempting to do. I mean they are attempting to bl

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Compare and Contrast between Ethics and Law Essay

Thoroughly analyze among Ethics and Law - Essay Example The crucial reason for the two morals, just as the Law, is to direct the conduct of the person in the general public. Both try to manage confused human feelings from making hurt the general public and himself. Morals has commonly been considered as the â€Å"law of nature† or the â€Å"law of God†. From the earliest starting point of human progress, man has consistently come to understand the polarity of good and bad which is exhibited by the all inclusive string of profound quality that goes through the worlds’ various societies. Law in the current age has come to be amazingly enhanced. There is presently a corporate legal counselor to oversee the communications of business associations, a common law to handle general undertakings, worldwide law to manage the issues of sovereign states and protected innovation law to manage information and information dispersal. Correspondingly, there has come to be a Business morals, biomedical morals, corporate morals, etc. Ev ery single lawful framework are gotten from moral frameworks of one kind or the other. Similarly as there are disputes in the understandings of the law, there are likewise various types of morals. Debauchery, Cyrenaic Hedonism, Epicureanism, emotionlessness, utilitarian morals, authenticity and so forth have broadened their impact on huge subsections of the scholarly globe. This clear nonappearance of solidarity doesn't invalidate the substance of either law or morals. It has been remarked upon by different creators, that a definitive understanding of any law or resolution lays on the directing appointed authority. In making his individual decision, the appointed authority depends to an enormous degree on his moral feelings. In the acclaimed Roe Vs Wade preliminary relating to the lawfulness of premature birth, fiveâ judges decided in favor while three contradicted. These adjudicators no uncertainty realized that there were no legitimate grounds to deny a premature birth in the particular preliminary yet they thought of it as a break of ethical quality to deny the pri vilege to life of a potential person.

Liberal Art Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Liberal Art Studies - Essay Example This may incorporate looking for new open doors that are additionally fitting to the distinctive individual and can make that singular increasingly satisfied as an individual. Following quite a while of carrying on with his life as per the animalistic joys of the body, Augustine felt there must be something more to life than the manner in which he was living it. He therefore started a mission for an all the more satisfying life. Likewise, an all the more satisfying vocation ought to consistently be the objective of the expert. A superior vocation frequently requires troublesome changes, however an expert ought to be happy to roll out those improvements so as to understand a superior life. Notwithstanding profiting the individual, an increasingly satisfied individual is better ready to improve society in general. A cutting edge professional’s vocation venture is like the profound excursion of Augustine. A profession doesn't generally work out as expected. There are troublesome issues to work through in about each occupation. There are additionally times when it is better for a person to proceed onward from a present place of employment and get a superior, all the more satisfying activity. Like an otherworldly excursion, an expert is defied with troublesome circumstances which are frequently unsavory. These circumstances regularly lead to changes and, albeit troublesome, they can lead an expert to a superior way wherein they can develop as a person just as an expert.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Improving Quality of Care Through Pain Management

Improving Quality of Care Through Pain Management Patrick Bobst A Qualitative Study Quantitative research includes testing speculations, making forecasts, examining explicit factors, gathering numbers and measurements, recognizing factual connections, and mentioning objective facts under controlled conditions (Johnson Christensen, 2008). None of the previously mentioned traits show up in section 17 â€Å"Improving the nature of care through torment evaluation and management†. Thus. this section composed byWells, Pasero, McCaffery, (2008) is an itemized deductive subjective examination which expects to build chances to grow exactly upheld thoughts and hypotheses with material significance in the field of torment the board for social insurance specialists. In contrast to inductive investigation, applied when insufficient previous information about a marvel is known, deductive substance examination is utilized when the structure of investigation is started dependent on past information and with the aim to test a theory(Elos Helvi, 2008). The creators of part 17 gave subjective research by considering the issue of torment control all in all without inundation into factors. They characterized the motivation behind the examination by emotionally understanding and deciphering cooperations with words, distinguishing examples and topics, and mentioning objective facts of events in a characteristic environment(Johnson Christensen, 2008). Subjective research is increasingly worried about depicting social significance and subsequently gives the adaptability to follow thoughts and investigate processes(McGonigle Mastrian, 2012). Research Problem The degree of torment a patient encounters is rising as the fifth fundamental sign in wellbeing evaluations statuses (Ju-Ling Wen-Chu, 2013). Agony is a typical event and a desire in hospitalized patients particularly during the postoperative period; yet notwithstanding the accessibility of analgesics alongside national rules to oversee torment a distinction stays in legitimate torment the executives bringing about undertreatment for about half of patients with moderate to serious pain(Wells et al., 2008). Deficiently oversaw agony can prompt a munititions stockpile of negative unfavorable physical and mental results including safe framework concealment bringing about diseases and poor recuperating, thoughtful enactment causing cardiovascular ischemia and ileus, diminishing versatility bringing about profound vein thrombosis, just as aspiratory embolus, or pneumonia(Nwachukwu, 2012). All referenced antagonistic conditions convey along the potential result of expanding a patientâ€⠄¢s length of remain in the medical clinic diminishing patient fulfillment and expanding authoritative costs(Nwachukwu, 2012). The Affordable Care Act of 2010 has built up changes in the manner medical clinics are repaid for administrations. Worth based buying has gone to the cutting edge in the social insurance industry with the habitats for Medicare and Medicaid administrations (CMS) retaining full repayments for low quality consideration or even default for patients readmitted inside 30 days. Low patient fulfillment score pointers being followed by CMS won't just influence an organization’s main concern yet in addition remain to lose its reputation(Wells et al., 2008). At the point when agony isn't overseen appropriately through an organization’s torment the board arrangement and strategy rule the whole community oriented group liable for dealing with a patient’s torment might be at risk for lawful action(Wells et al., 2008). Research Translated Into Practice The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) centers around ebb and flow issues, understanding wellbeing and nature of social insurance giving professionals the best research to ideal patient results. AHRQ is a functioning member in pushing proof forward into training with its Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) activity to create information about proof based consideration and with the TRIP-II activity the attention is on using data innovation to influence translational research and wellbeing strategy (McGonigle Mastrian, 2012). The TRIP database is a clinical web crawler intended to recognize top notch clinical proof for clinical practice that uses logical issues, for example, the size of the medical problem, monetary expenses of the issue, the unwavering quality, pertinence, and legitimacy of the information alongside the quality and consistency of the proof (Glasgow Emmons, 2007). The creators in the torment appraisal and agony the board inquire about examination u sed the TRIP database testing for the terms â€Å"pain assessment† and â€Å"pain management† in the writing search, sifted just the English language and productions dated inside the most recent 10 years, meta-investigation, practice rules, writing surveys, clinical preliminaries, and irregular clinical preliminaries (RCT). To utilize proof by and by, the legitimacy of research is assessed on an evidential chain of importance that is characterized and the worth is appointed to the data source on a scale from 1 to 6, one being the most noteworthy proof from a foundational survey and six being the proof from the assessment of experts(McGonigle Mastrian, 2012). The proof table gave by the creators in the torment evaluation and agony the board study displays brilliant research legitimacy with various plan types rating high on the evidential progressive system scale posting. The creators used proof from a meta-examination study (Level 1), twelve RCT considers (Level 2), sev en efficient writing audits (Level 5), three writing surveys (Level 6), and one subjective back rub study (Level 7)(Melnyk Fineout-Overholt, 2011). The RCT is viewed as the most dependable wellspring of proof in the chain of importance and the meta-investigation is the best quality proof since it utilizes a various individual research studies to go to an accord (McGonigle Mastrian, 2012). Practice Implications The ramifications of this TRIP intercession intended to build the utilization of proof based practice (EBP) in torment evaluation and the executives features logical proof for experts to increase their clinical dynamic. Proposals for fruitful usage of torment appraisal and the board incorporate training, the use of suitable apparatuses in torment appraisal, a multimodal pain relieving approach, nonstop assessment, and a built up authoritative torment the board rule. Patient and family training has been a focal proposal with respect to torment the board before any surgery in that complete torment assessments can reveal patient’s mentalities, convictions, level of information, and ridiculous desires that can be addressed(Wells et al., 2008). Wells et al. (2008) found that visit correspondence, shared objectives, and shared information in training added to more readily torment results. The most basic part of legitimate agony the executives is surveying torment levels all the time utilizing a standard organization, and so as to meet the patient’s needs torment ought to be rethought after every mediation assessing the impacts and deciding if change is needed(Wells et al., 2008). In view of deliberate surveys of torment quality improvement examines the accentuation has moved from procedures to results where clinicians perceive and treat torment quickly, include patients and families in torment the executives plans, alter torment the board designs varying, and screen procedures and outcomes(Wells et al., 2008). Using a multimodal approach for torment the executives is suggested which incorporates narcotics, and non-narcotics, for example, nonsteroidal mitigating medications, and assistant prescriptions, for example, anticonvulsants can improve the security of the treatment (Wells et al., 2008). With wellbeing issues in regards to the utilization of morphine, hydromorphone, and fentyal clinicians should be taught about safe torment the board to help fores tall undertreatment of torment and the subsequent unsafe impacts. A progression of deliberate surveys show poor outcomes and results utilizing the intramuscular course (IM) directing of a narcotic pain relieving (Wells et al., 2008). The IM course is excruciating, has an inconsistent ingestion time and can be perilous since patients are regularly alone at the hour of pinnacle influence and can turn out to be unnecessarily calmed, upchuck, and aspiratenevertheless produces the most unfortunate results (Wells et al., 2008). Unfortunately,Wells et al. (2008) portray the proof for nondrug procedures of torment the board including unwinding, music, back rub, warmth and cold treatments are neither strong nor reliable, are viewed as feeble in lessening intense agony, and may not improve results. Sufficient proof uncovered the suitable utilization of analgesics with the best possible medication at the right interim can give great help with discomfort to most of patients, and associations sh ould put their accentuation on improving evaluations and organization methods (Wells et al., 2008). The mental, enthusiastic, and budgetary cost of uncontrolled torment is stupendous and everybody encountering uneasiness as a result of agony evenhandedly expects and needs to get suitable torment the board. Research Implications The exploration furnished backings the proof based medications with analgesics in the administration of agony, and has all the earmarks of being powerful in controlling intense torment. Be that as it may, the undertreatment of intense torment stays common due to the clinician’ practices, which incorporates lacking torment information, evaluation aptitudes and organization of analgesics (Wells et al., 2008). Krenzischek, Wilson, Newhouse, Mamaril, Kane (2004) additionally state an absence of torment the board information and the decreased utilization of clinical practice rules is a high donor in poor torment the executives. Research is required for compelling methodologies in changing clinician perspectives and practices that will bring about better torment the executives for patients just as non-tranquilize treatments (Wells et al., 2008). Wells et al. (2008) states, â€Å"Lack of normalization of nondrug treatments is one of the downsides of the current literature† (p. 11

Book Riots Deals of the Day for August 20th, 2019

Book Riot’s Deals of the Day for August 20th, 2019 Sponsored by  hibooks the club for audiobook lovers. These deals were active as of this writing, but may expire soon, so get them while they’re hot! Todays  Featured Deals Nappily Ever After  by Trisha R. Thomas for $1.99. Get it here,  or just click on the cover image below. The Crossing Places by Elly Griffiths for $1.99. Get it here,  or just click on the cover image below. Column of Fire by Ken Follett for $1.99. Get it here,  or just click on the cover image below. In Case You Missed Yesterdays Most Popular Deals On Beauty  by Zadie Smith for $1.99.  Get it here,  or just click on the cover image below. Exit West: A Novel by Mohsin Hamid for $1.99.  Get it here, or just click on the cover image below. Previous Daily Deals That Are Still Active As Of This Writing (Get em While Theyre hot!): Down the Darkest Street by Alex Segura for $0.99. The Banished of Muirwood for $3.99. The Idiot: A Novel by Elif Batuman for $1.99. 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Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Descartes and exploration the reality of the exist - Free Essay Example

In the Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes speaks through the mind of the meditator and explores the reality of the existence of God and all things. At the end of the Second Meditation, Descartes concludes that because he is doubting his existence, he is therefore thinking, meaning that he exists. This conclusion pushes Descartes to explore if all thoughts and realities perceived by the mind are true or false. Descartes divisions of the mind include the theory of a materially false idea, which proves that an idea can contain some falsity. Descartes uses this claim to discredit intellect and prove that we can recognize error. Although Descartes only scratches the surface of material falsity in the Third Meditation, he explains it further in his response to Arnaulds objections Concerning God. His answer admits that the Third Meditation is inconsistent with the intended meaning. There are evident flaws in his argument including his use of examples and the unclear ideas his theory is based on. Descartes begins the Third Meditation by realizing that although he can think ideas, there has to be a source of power that gives him the ability to do so. The only possibility is a form of God because his unlimited power allows him to control what the meditator can perceive. In order to prove the idea of God, Descartes first chooses to classify his thoughts into definite kinds and asks which of them can bring truth and falsity (CSM II 25). The three types of ideas created are innate and adventitious, which are ideas that are foreign to the meditator, and ideas invented by the meditator himself. Descartes notices that in order for him to recognize or create an idea, he must ask how he knows what these things are. They are not produced by will nor do they only depend on the meditator. These ideas exist externally and are known for existing in formal reality. For an idea to contain formal reality, the mediator has to perceive the object through his senses and then pass judgment on what it may be. The representation of that judgment or idea in the mind is known as objective reality. Descartes uses the example of the Sun to demonstrate this notion. When the meditator looks at the Sun in formal reality, it is small. But in objective reality, the Sun is understood as being infinitely larger than the Earth. Neither representation is entirely accurate, but the mind has the knowledge to know this. Although the meditator is not u sing reliable judgment but a blind impulse to see the Sun, it is still represented in both objective and formal reality, making it exist. This conclusion leads Descartes to question the origin of ideas in objective reality. To begin finding his answer, he defines the relationship between formal and objective reality through the example of heat. Heat can be produced in space outside of the intellect of the meditator, however, one must have the idea of heat in order to know what he is experiencing at the moment is heat. Therefore, an idea must have some form of objective reality in order to have any formal reality. Heat can take multiple forms through fire or radiation in formal reality, but the primary idea of heat can only be present objectively. The source of these original ideas can only come from a more perfect and all-powerful being known as God, but Descartes struggles with the falsity of ideas because he cannot differentiate between ideas that originate from him and from God. In order to find this answer, Descartes tries to discredit his own ideas by finding any falsity in them. Formal falsity is sourced from judgments, but Descartes discovers that there is also material falsity in ideas which mistakes non-things for things. To further his examination on material falsity, Descartes employs the example of heat again and compares it with cold. Tactile qualities such as light, color, sound, heat, and cold are all confused and obscure because they all contain very little clarity or distinctive qualities. It is difficult to tell whether cold is the absence of heat, heat is the absence of cold, both are real, or both are false. Descartes answers this question through the notion that there can be no ideas which are not as it w ere of things, and ideas being like images, must in each case appear to us to represent something. (CSM II 30) Heat can appear to the meditators senses through fire, therefore making it more of a substance than cold. Cold is then only the absence of heat, however, to the mind, it is represented as something positive. This miscorrelation means that there is an inconsistency in the human mind. If a positive idea is sourced from nothing, this means the meditator cannot distinguish this idea from a non-thing, however, if the meditator realizes he is making this mistake, it means there is a more perfect being allowing him this vision. Descartes slightly contradicts himself in the development of this argument. Just as darkness is sourced from negating light, so is the infinite by negating finite, however, as Descartes mentioned before, we cannot make the absence of something a positive idea. Descartes clarifies that the infinite has more reality than a finite substance, making his perception of God prior to the perception of himself. God is prior because Descartes is able to recognize that he is lacking something, meaning that he understands the existence of a more perfect being who has given him the ability to do so, similar to the ability to doubt or think. A finite substance, such as the meditator, only is able to recognize an infinite substance because Gods power can never be fully understood. This distinction between the finite and infinite proves that the meditator cannot apply material falsity to infinite objects because he will never know how the infinite is truly represented since it can only exist in objective reality, which is unlike his ability to see light and darkness in form al reality. Descartes now has absolute certainty that God is true to the highest degree because it passes the test of material falsity (CSM II 31). Arnauld is unsatisfied by this conclusion and believes that Descartes is inconsistent with materially false ideas and his own principles. To clarify his issue, Arnauld uses the example of heat and cold. As stated earlier, Descartes believes that since cold is represented as a positive thing, it must be materially false because it is actually the absence of heat. Arnauld refutes Descartes notion by claiming that it is not possible for there to be a positive idea of cold if it is an absence, therefore Descartes is confused between an idea and a judgment. Cold as the absence of heat is only a judgment, but the idea of cold still exists objectively in the mind. Any idea that has an objective existence must be positive and therefore, cold cannot only be an absence. Arnaulds argument is confirmed by Descartes proof of God because God is also something that the meditator cannot see but also something he cannot pretend doesnt exist. Descartes can say that cold is materially false, but it is still impossible to pretend that it doesnt exist because an idea is positive through the objective existence which it contains and which it represents to our mind. (CSM II 145) To think that the idea of cold represents a positive entity would be materially false, however, to think that it represents an absence means that cold is objectively positive. I agree with Arnaulds argument. It is not possible to say that cold is materially false because it is still an idea that contains objective reality, but I think that the main flaw of Descartes notion is not whether or not cold is materially false, but that cold is the absence of heat. Descartes evidence of this fact is invalid because cold may still exist, just not clearly to the naked eye. Just because cold cannot be seen does not mean that it doesnt exist. If Descartes wanted to find an example to prove material falsity, he shouldve tried arguing that darkness is the absence of light, which is a more distinct contrast than cold and heat. Descartes admits that Arnaulds argument against material falsity is right in his own sense, so instead of refuting the idea, Descartes clarifies what he means in the Third Meditation. Arnauld only dealt with the idea in a formal sense, however, Descartes meant for material falsity to be found in an idea whereas the falsity involved in a judgment can only be formal (CSM II 163). There was an error in Descartes claim that cold is an absence and has less reality than heat, which he recognizes in his response. He is unable to tell which idea contains more reality, which is why Descartes categorizes them as a case of obscure and confused ideas. God is a clear and distinct idea, allowing this supreme being to exist. Confused ideas which are made up at will by the mind, such as the idea of false gods, do not provide as much scope for error as the confused ideas arriving from the senses such as color and cold. (CSM II 163). Because Descartes is unsure if he can still prove that cold has less reality than heat means that there is falsity in his idea of cold. A material falsity does not have to come from a positive entity because it comes solely from the obscurity of the idea. The purpose of this argument is only to show that the meditators nature is not perfect in all respects because he is unable to clarify what cold is. This development proves that the mind also h as the capability, like doubt, to recognize its own faults and compare itself to a more perfect being. Although Descartes initial notion of a material falsity was unclear in the Third Meditation, he clarifies his reasoning in his response to Arnauld. Descartes should have distinctly stated in the Third Meditation that he was still unsure about the relationship between hot and cold instead of using cold as an absence of heat to prove material falsity. Admitting his confusion would have also proven that material falsity exists because that shows that there are flaws in the intellects idea of hot and cold. His response to Arnauld proves the purpose of the Third Meditation, which is the validation of God. Because there are errors in our nature we can recognize through material falsity, this means there is some all-powerful entity which has given us the ability to think this, furthering his clear and distinct ideas that we are thinking beings and God exists.