Thursday, November 28, 2019

To Kill A Mockingbird Essays (566 words) - To Kill A Mockingbird

To Kill A Mockingbird The Maturity Of Scout And Jem In To Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee It is a sin to kill a mockingbird because they do nothing but make music for us to enjoy. This was quoted from To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, a creative novelist. To Kill a Mockingbird is about a young girl named Jean-Louise Finch, her brother Jeremy Finch and many other characters. Jean- Louise is nick-named Scout and Jeremy is nick-named Jem. Their father Atticus ,who was a lawyer, had been given a case to handle and did not have any choice but to receive it and work his best for his client. The case was about an African man, named Tom Robinson, who was accused of raping a white woman. Throughout the story the reader sees how Scout and Jem are afraid of Boo because they think he is a monster and try to tease him. They try to play tricks on Boo. Later in the novel they are no longer afraid of him and are no longer interested in teasing him. Another example of their maturity is how they view people. When Scout and Jem see how Tom Robinson is treated just because he is black, they begin to understand the meaning of prejudice. No one comes to help Tom Robinson except their father who defends him when Tom is accused of raping a white woman. Scout watches the trial and believes that he will be found innocent. Instead, Tom Robinson is found guilty. Her disappointment in the verdict makes Scout question the idea of justice. Who in this town did one thing to help Tom Robinson, just who? (215) Scout and Jem had believe that their father was not like any other fathers in school. They see him as an old man who can't do anything. However, when a mad dog appears on the street, Atticus, their farther, kills that dog with one shot. They are surprised to learn that he is the best shot in the town. They're attitude towards their father has changed. This is a sign of maturity. The rifle cracked. Tim Johnson leaped, flopped over and crumpled on the sidewalk in a brown-and-white heap. He didn't know what hit him. (96) Jem became vaguely articulate, 'you see him, Scout? You see him just stand there? All of a sudden he just relaxed all over. it looked like that gun was a part of him...and he did it so quick, like... I hafta to aim for ten minutes fore I can hit something,...'(97) Another incident which shows Scout's maturing is when she overhears her teacher saying that it is a good thing Tom Robinson was convicted because the black were getting too high and mighty. This disturbs scout very much because the teacher is always telling them about democracy and the persecution of Jews yet it is OK to persecute the blacks. Scout wonder how her teacher could be so contradictory. The last incident which brings Scout to adulthood is when she and Jem are brought safely home from their attacker by boo. She finally has the courage to stand on the Radley porch, and the kids are no longer afraid of Boo Radley. They now understand him. Scout and Jem mature during the duration of the novel by watching the events happen around them. They learn to examine the institutions around them more closely and to accept people as they are. Bibliography Me, Myself, and I Legal Issues

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Induction Program Essays

Induction Program Essays Induction Program Essay Induction Program Essay Although orientation programs are design to reduce stress associated with starting the new job, quite often new employees are presented with huge amount of information and procedures, compressed into short brief which only increases the level of anxiety their experience. It is up to management to find the right balance. In Australia where unemployment Is at Its lowest mark since 1974 and stands at Just 4 per cent, staff shortages in hospitality Industry are significant (Austin, 2008). Keeping the new employees at the Job by developing well-designed orientation program Is than vital. The purpose of this paper is to develop an induction plan for the first month of work for a restaurant hostess. To do so a short description of a restaurant and few assumptions are needed. Restaurant is located in historic Rocks area in Sydney. It is a busy restaurant with capacity of 800 guests. Big terrace has about 350 seats and caters for a la carte customers, inside of the restaurant holds up to 450 guests and is mainly used for weddings and various functions. Open for business 7 days and nights. First two days of the orientation program would be away from normal, everyday duties and delved Into three and five hour blocks. DAY 1 (3 hours) On the flirts day new employee will get familiar with the organization and the property as a whole. Main occupational health and safety issues will be also discussed. General Manager is going to conduct the general property orientation and cover topics such as: Restaurants mission statement Management philosophy Personal forms polices and procedures Role of employees In meeting company goals Relations between guest and employee People AT teen company History An employee should benefit from this part of induction by having better understanding of companys expectations of them. Employee feels how important and valuable he/she is for an organization. Motivation and commitment is also established at this stage. General safety and emergency procedures should be than introduced (appendix 3). For example: Always clean up spills and breakages immediately. It is usually someone else that gets hurt. Dispose of broken glass or breakages in proper receptacles. Inform managers of any accidents immediately. Know where the fire extinguishes and exits are. Report any hazards to your OCHS committee member and/or manager. If an injury occurs at work o must complete an accident form. It is employer responsibility to ensure that employees have appropriate OCHS skills and is regulated by the NEWS OCHS act. Induction program provides organization with the opportunity to train new staff in accordance with their OCHS policy and programs (Work Cover NEWS, 2003). It is advisable that this information is presented in written and verbal form, and supported by a tour of the property. Orientation kits are given to the Hostess to support discussed matters, such as policies and procedures (appendix 3) and information about hostess training (appendix 1). Orientation kits enable employees to reflect on the information and think of questions they may want to ask. DAY 2 (5 hours) Second day of orientation program will focus on topics directly related to Job performance. Responsibilities presented in Job description will be analyses. As for the Restaurant Hostess main duties would be to greet and seat guests, offer menus, let them know who their waiter is and farewell them. Busiest time for the hostesses is between 12. 30-1. Pm for lunch and 7. 30-9. Pm for dinner, after that time pressure is shifted to the floor staff. New hostess should get familiar with number of tasks which may assist with overall service of the guests (appendix 1): Re setting tables Running food Running drinks Clearing tables Taking orders Polishing cutlery Folding napkins Washing glasses t Is a general practice Tort nosecones to perform canceling or receptionist Gutless rater they get to know reservation system of the restaurant. By allowing the hostess working one shift per week as for example receptionist, apart from sense of variation it also gives them physical and mental break from usual duties. Being on their feet for up to 8 hours and smiling on the same time could be tiring. Therefore general cross-training should be provided and run by receptionist/cashier. Importance of grooming and appearance (aesthetic values) should be underlined (appendix 1). For example: black shoes, long pants (no Jeans, hipsters or mid drifts), ironed black long sleeve shirt. Hair neatly tied back, minimum Jewelry. No oversized earnings. Subtle make up and clear nail polish. Importance of body language and being hospitable should be brought forward. The nature of hospitality industry is working with the public. High level of general and personal hygiene as well as safety is than essential. Hostess is then introduced to people she will work and interact with as well as to office workers (Function Managers, Wedding Coordinators). This aspect is in particular important since Hostess is usually the first person customer faces when coming to the restaurant. Hostess should know how to deal with people coming for a meeting with MM, trying to sell something, asking for a Job or inquiring about wedding or function. Various policies and procedures are discussed, including those related to start and finishing times, rosters, holiday requests, sickness, payroll, superannuation, staff meals, staff concessions and trial period (appendix 3). It is important to take that part of orientation seriously, but unfortunately many managers tend to delegate closest available employee to help with induction process. The opportunity of directly influence employee behavior is than lost. OCHS issues differ for specific Job areas. They are outlined to the new employee it detail on the second day of induction program. In a particular restaurant analyses in this paper Hostess can be exposed to number of hazards: UP radiation (Restaurant front-desk is situated outside) wet environments Animal and insect bites Lifting and shifting tables Assaults Outside gas heaters Uneven surface Hot, cold and Appropriate control measures are than introduced and discussed. Minimizing UP exposure Protective clothing Ann-insect sprays Proper posture when lifting Handling difficult guests and complains Following manufacturer/supplier procedures when using special equipment Avoid running and wearing high hills I newer are many advantages Tort provoking detective Neal Ana estate training. Companys image is enhanced; costs related to labor turnover, accidents and absenteeism are reduced; employee satisfaction is improved; and main goals and objectives of the company are meet more effectively and efficiently (Work Cover NEWS, 003). Importance of creating safety culture in the company is great. During remaining 28 days of induction program, main focus would be laid on close supervision. Managers will observe and assist the new employee in the process of learning the new Job. While performance of the new employee increases, time spent on watching and helping new employee should decrease (Woods, 2002). The best and effective way for a new hostess to learn her Job is to observe and work with more experience worker (Head Hostess). Some organizations call it buddy program and in this case such program would be appropriate. In practice managers tend to make the mistake of roistering new hostess alone for the lunch shifts Monday to Thursday because is not busy. Inexperienced hostess is than confronted with unfamiliar and new scenarios and quite often various mistakes occur, which could cost company lost business or bad image. After about a week of on the Job training, manager should have a meeting with the new employee and discus the progress to date and talk about expectations towards him in the future. Formal, first appraisal should take place at the end of the orientation program and could be marked as an end point of he process. Managers could than present the new hostess with a short test to determine level of orientation. Job related questions and case scenarios could be included in the test. For example, what do you do in a situation when: There is a booking for 15 people on a busy Saturday night for pm, at 7. 20 they are still not here. Peak hour at the restaurant, someone is enquiring about Job vacancies. Family birthday party, couple of kids are running around bare foot. Customer tells you about his food allergies while you sitting him. Queue at the door is getting big and you can not cope. Drunk and abusive arson approaches front desk. New employees who are adequately orientated should answer those questions correctly. At that time decision about the future of the new employee have to be made. Companies who have well-designed and developed induction programs are more likely to perform better in a competitive hospitality industry. Orientation programs are especially important to big organization as it is fairly easy for a new employee to disappear in the crowd. Some sophisticated new workers can trick the management by well performing only when they know that they are being watched. Induction orgasm help companies keep valuable workers and avoid getting stuck with someone they do not want, before is too late.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Roman Republics 3 Branches of Government

Roman Republic's 3 Branches of Government From the Founding of Rome in c. 753 B.C. to c. 509 B.C., it  was a monarchy, ruled by kings. In 509 (possibly), the Romans expelled their Etruscan kings and established the Roman Republic. Having witnessed the problems of the monarchy on their own land, and aristocracy and democracy among the Greeks, the Romans opted for a mixed form of government, with 3 branches. Consuls - the Monarchical Branch Two magistrates called consuls carried on the functions of the former kings, holding supreme civil and military authority in Republican Rome. However, unlike the kings, the office of consul lasted for only one year. At the end of their year in office, the ex-consuls became senators for life, unless ousted by the censors. Powers of the Consuls: Consuls held imperium and had the right to 12 lictors each.Each consul could veto the other.They led the army,Served as judges, andRepresented Rome in foreign affairs.Consuls presided over the comitia centuriata. Consulship Safeguards The 1-year term, veto, and co-consulship were safeguards to prevent one of the consuls from wielding too much power. Emergency Contingency: In times of war a single dictator could be appointed for a 6-month term. Senate - the Aristocratic Branch Senate (senatus council of elders, related to the word senior) was the advisory branch of the Roman government, early on composed of about 300 citizens who served for life. They were chosen by the kings, at first, then by the consuls, and by the end of the 4th century, by the censors. The ranks of the Senate, drawn from ex-consuls and other officers. Property requirements changed with the era. At first, senators were only patricians but in time plebeians joined their ranks. Assembly - the Democratic Branch The Assembly of Centuries (comitia centuriata), which was composed of all members of the army, elected consuls annually. The Assembly of Tribes (comitia tributa), composed of all citizens, approved or rejected laws and decided issues of war and peace. Dictators Sometimes dictators were at the head of the Roman Republic. Between 501-202 B.C. there were 85 such appointments. Normally, dictators served for 6 months and acted with the consent of the Senate. They were appointed by the consul or a military tribune with consular powers. The occasions of their appointment included war, sedition, pestilence, and sometimes for religious reasons. Dictator for Life Sulla was appointed dictator for an undefined period and was dictator until he stepped down, but Julius Caesar was officially appointed dictator in perpetuo meaning that there was no set end point to his dominance. References Religious Dictators of the Roman RepublicArthur KaplanThe Classical World, Vol. 67, No. 3 (Dec. 1973 - Jan. 1974), pp. 172-175Pennells History of Rome

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Determining Late Work and Makeup Work Policies

Determining Late Work and Makeup Work Policies Late work is a teacher housekeeping task that often causes a classroom management nightmare for teachers. Late work can be especially difficult for new educators who do not have a set policy in place or even for a veteran teacher who has created a policy that just is not working. There are many reasons why makeup or late work should be allowed, but the best reason to consider is that any work that was deemed important enough by a teacher to be assigned, deserves to be completed. If homework or classwork is not important, or are assigned as busy work, students will notice, and they will not be motivated to complete the assignments. Any homework and/or classwork a teacher assigns and collects should support a students academic growth. There may be students returning from excused or unexcused absences who will need to complete makeup work. There also may be students who have not worked responsibly. There may be assignment completed on paper, and now there may be assignments submitted digitally. There are multiple software programs where students may submit homework or classwork. However, there may be students  who lack the  resources or support they need at home. Therefore, it is important that teachers create late work and make-up work policies for hard copies and for digital submissions that they can follow consistently and with a minimum of effort. Anything less will result in confusion and further problems. Questions to Consider When Creating a Late Work and Makeup Work Policy Research your schools current late work policies. Questions to ask:Does my school have a set policy for teachers concerning late work? For example, there might be a schoolwide policy that all teachers are to take off a letter grade for each day late.What is my schools policy concerning time for makeup work? Many school districts allow students two days to complete late work for each day they were out.What is my schools policy for making up work when a student has an excused absence? Does that policy differ for an unexcused absence? Some schools do not allow students to make up work after unexcused absences.Decide how you want to handle collecting on-time homework or classwork. Options to consider:Collecting homework (hard copies) at the door as they enter the class.Digital submissions to a classroom software platform or app (ex: Edmodo, Google Classroom). These will have a digital time stamp on each document.Ask students have to turn homework/classwork into a specific location (homew ork/classwork box) by the bell to be considered on time.Use a timestamp to put on homework /classwork to mark when it was submitted.   Determine if you will accept partially-completed homework or classwork. If so, then students can be considered on time even if they have not completed their work. If not, this needs to be clearly explained to students.Decide what type of penalty (if any) you will assign to late work. This is an important decision because it will impact how you control late work. Many teachers choose to lower a students grade by one letter for each day that it is late. If this is what you choose, then you will need to come up with a method for recording the dates past deadline for hard copies to help you remember as you grade later that day. Possible ways to mark late work:Have students write the date they turn in the homework on the top. This saves you time but could also lead to cheating.You write the date the homework was turned in on the top as it is turned in. This will only work if you have a mechanism for students to turn in work directly to you each day.If you wish to use a homework collection box, then you can mark the day each assignment was turned in on the paper when you grade each day. However, this requires daily maintenance on your part so that you dont get confused. Decide how will you assign makeup work to students who were absent. Possible ways to assign makeup work:Have an assignment book where you write down all classwork and homework along with a folder for copies of any worksheets/handouts. Students are responsible for checking the assignment book when they return and collecting the assignments. This requires you to be organized and to update the assignment book each day.Create a buddy system. Have students be responsible for writing down assignments to share with someone who was out of class. If you gave notes in class, either provide a copy for the students who missed or you can have them copy notes for a friend. Be aware that students have to on their own time copy notes and they might not get all the information depending on the quality of the notes copied.Only give makeup work before or after school. Students have to come to see you when you are not teaching so that they can get the work. This can be hard for some students who do not have the time to come before or after depending on bus/ride schedules.Have a separate makeup assignment that uses the same skills, but different questions or criteria. Prepare how will you have students makeup tests and/or quizzes that they missed when they were absent. Many teachers require students to meet with them either before or after school. However, if there is an issue or concern with that, you might be able to have them come to your room during your planning period or lunch to try and complete the work. For students who need to make up assessments, you may want to design an alternate assessment, with different questions.Anticipate that long-term assignments (ones where students have two or more weeks to work on) will take much more supervision. Break the project up into chunks, staggering the workload when possible. Breaking up one assignment into smaller deadlines will mean that you are not chasing a large  assignment with a high percentage grade that is late.Decide how you will address late projects or large percentage assignments. Will you allow late submissions?  Make sure that you address this issue at the beginning of the year, especially if you are going to have a research paper or other long-term assignment in your class. Most teachers make it a policy that if students are absent on the day a long-term assignment is due that it must be submitted the day that student returns to school. Without this policy, you might find students who are trying to gain extra days by being absent. If you do not have a consistent late work or makeup policy, your students will notice. Students who turn their work in on time will be upset, and those who are consistently late will take advantage of you. The key to an effective late work and makeup work policy is good recordkeeping and daily enforcement. Once you decide what you want for your late work and makeup policy, then stick to that policy. Share your policy with other teachers because there is strength in consistency. Only by your consistent actions will this become one less worry in your school day.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Greece's solution on its national debt crisis Essay

Greece's solution on its national debt crisis - Essay Example This European debt crisis witnessed in Greece is believed by various economists to have been caused by the structural flaws that came about after a period of great recession that the country had plunged into (Margaronis, 12). The economy of Greece has had deficits for quite a long time that has escalated its borrowing index to a figure the government cannot afford to pay. The 2009 Greece recession is arguably a major reason the country piled this huge European debt that is currently puzzling it (Spiegel). The government is expected to settle a debt of over seven hundred million Euros to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), something that is likely to hurt more the Greece economy. There have been several arguments and discussions from different perspectives with some admitting the situation that is witnessed in Greece currently could not have been avoided given they joined the Eurozone because of the change in currency as well as the policy and regulations that govern member economies (Nelson, Belkin and Derek). Others refute this and blame the economic policy makers for the woes the country is facing. All in all, the nation is in a crisis and a remedy is needed as fast as possible. Numerous actions are being taken to remedy the dire situation that is currently experienced in Greece and bring a solution that could free the nation from the hooks of European debt. First, the move made by Finland to bail out Greece should be lauded. As a matter of fact, Finland government was driven by good motives of saving this country from the global humiliation it is currently exposed to. The most challenging thing about this assistance Finland is offering is the rules that come with it. The IMF and other institutions have all reportedly attempted to find a solution to Greece but nothing much have been achieved. The Finland’s conflict of interest and the mistrust it has on Greece has

Collision Insurance Requirement and Traffic Safety Act in Gonzalez vs Essay

Collision Insurance Requirement and Traffic Safety Act in Gonzalez vs. Raich's case - Essay Example This paper illustrates that the individual mandate will be a crucial part of the CIRTSA’s plan to reduce car accident costs. If individuals do not have to purchase insurance, then the companies offering the service cannot ensure others who are affected by accidents. It is possible to argue that, under the Commerce Clause, Congress can regulate those activities that will significantly impact on interstate commerce by contending that the motor insurance market is a significant player in the national US economy. Therefore, uninsured drivers will use roads and fail to pay for the billions of dollars the sector is worth annually, shifting the costs to society and significantly impacting on interstate commerce. The US Supreme Court ruling in Gonzalez vs. Raich relied in part on Wickard v. Filburn, which can be, in this case, to hold that the refusal of many individuals to buy collision insurance would substantially impact on the market for collision insurance. This is because even i f, the activity of the individual may not be considered commerce, Congress could still treat it as such because it exerts substantial effects interstate commerce economically, especially if many people lose their livelihoods, such as with Robert Doe. A substantial number of Americans will require collision insurance at some point and, if they do not purchase insurance, they will be shifting their costs to other individuals. This law should be introduced as a regulation for how people pay for their likely collision insurance. Finally, if the Act is challenged in court, it can be argued that laws must be presumed constitutional if it is impossible to prove otherwise. Because Congress is entrusted by the Constitution with policy decisions, the courts should rarely interfere with its policies. The second argument could come in if the Commerce Clause is found insufficient to support CIRTSA’s individual mandate. In this case, the mandate should be upheld as being within the powers of Congress to lay taxes and collect them.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Euthanasia should be legalized by the AMA Essay

Euthanasia should be legalized by the AMA - Essay Example In some countries it is against the law to assist terminally ill patients to commit suicide. Euthanasia plainly means painless death but this has become a worldwide debate because doctors are helping people die rather than saving their lives, patients with chronic disorders are given pills and they die painlessly but is this justifiable? Doctors should not take lives; they are supposed to save lives. More will be presented in this paper about euthanasia. Final exit network is another NGO which helps terminally ill patients in assisted suicides. This NGO is known for accepting patients who are suffering from fatal diseases like cancer, heart failure, Parkinson’s disease and so on. Usually it is very difficult for such patients to be adopted by an NGO but Final exit is an exception and it accepts almost everyone. The near and dear ones of the terminally ill die each day, they suffer from physical and emotional trauma isn’t assisted suicide better than dying each day? It may not be the best option but when emotional pain and suffering supersedes everything, one is left with a handful of options. There are two ways in which euthanasia can be performed, the first one is when the doctor or the nurse gives a medicine which takes the life away of a terminally ill patient and the other is when the doctor or the nurse choose to ignore the patient and the patient dies upon not getting the proper medication. The zillion dollar question is who should decide when a terminally ill patient should be assisted with suicide or not? This is one question which is extremely difficult to answer, most times it is the relatives of the terminally ill patient who take a call and the doctors go ahead with it in some countries where assisted suicide is allowed. â€Å"Euthanasia groups  appeared  for the first time in England and America in the early 20 th  century. During the Second World War the Nazis in Germany had their own euthanasia

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Macroeconomics. The oils price Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Macroeconomics. The oils price - Essay Example However, how the various economic indicators behave during this short period of 'supply shock' and how they forecast performance or health of the economy in the coming period is the moot question. Inflation may be defined as "state of economy, where there is a general and abnormal rise in price of all goods and services". Recession is a state of economy where there is a "slump in Gross Domestic Product in two or three successive quarters of a year with general price rise or fall". In the short run, when a price of a product which is consumed every sector of the economy which contribute to GDP have suddenly risen, other things remain the same, lead to rising prices all commodities and services, fall in real value of money and slow down of economic growth. This phenomenon is attributed to 'supply shock'. Built-in inflation - induced by adaptive expectations, often linked to the "price/wage spiral" because it involves workers trying to keep their wages up with prices and then employers passing higher costs on to consumers as higher prices as part of a "vicious circle". Built-in inflation reflects events in the past, and so might be seen as hangover inflation. It is also known as "inertial" inflation, "inflationary momentum", and even "structural inflation. Cost Push inflation or Supply... Built-in inflation - induced by adaptive expectations, often linked to the "price/wage spiral" because it involves workers trying to keep their wages up with prices and then employers passing higher costs on to consumers as higher prices as part of a "vicious circle". Built-in inflation reflects events in the past, and so might be seen as hangover inflation. It is also known as "inertial" inflation, "inflationary momentum", and even "structural inflation. SUPPLY SHOCK INFLATION OR COST PUSH INFLATION: Cost Push inflation or Supply Shock inflation is caused by the rise in price of an important commodity for which there was no alternative, and consequent of which there was a general rise in price of all commodities and services. While the examples for cost push inflation are many viz., failure of monsoon/draught in an agrobased economy which would shoot up inflation etc.,. the best example in the modern industrialised countries, is rise in prices of petroleum prodoucts. Dependence to petroleum products in any economy need not be emphasised and it may not be forgotten that the crisis faced by the world in the year 1970 is attributed to the rise in oil prices all over the world. Since, petroluem is important for moving the economy in all industrial including agricultural dependent countries, any upward movement in the price will cause a cascading movement in the price of all commodities and services and it will have persistant effect. However, there are different school of thought which opine, that the reduction in oil price after 1970 have not contributed in reduction in general price level, hence, rise in oil prices have not directly caused inflation in 1970. However, Keynesian economists argue that many prices are 'sticky

Monday, November 18, 2019

Project Analysis Part III Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Project Analysis Part III - Essay Example Therefore, each company now desires to implement latest technology to interact with its customers to better improve their product quality and hence sales. In this era of extreme competition, everyone wants to get response in-time which is being achieved by implementing customer relationship management (CRM) softwares. These softwares are provided by or Microsoft dynamics CRM. Large enterprise systems have been using CRM from long before but now technology improved a lot and this system is applicable by almost all companies(Chen & Popovich, 2003). Now all enterprise levels can easily implement customer relationship softwares to directly communicate with their users and take feedback of their newly launched as well as upcoming products. 2.0 Cloud Computing With the advent of cloud computing technology, computation has become more convenient and usage of technology is cheaper. Cloud computing has allowed industries to expand their business based on hardware as well as sof tware, at even low costs than ever before. Now industrialists need not to pay expensive computer systems and networking complexities; rather they simply need to make their own network on cloud and pay little for that. Nowadays, cloud computing is extensively being used for implementing CRM in most of the companies. This results in low cost implementation of CRM yet effective. Cloud system is provided with state of the art user friendly setup with the ease of usage as well as provides extensive productive system. Although usage of cloud computing technology is getting fame day by day but still it is having some flaws. While making use of cloud technology for Warnaco group, one threat could be non-reliability of cloud data as this data can be accessed by anybody on the public network. This threat can be overcome by implementing private cloud rather than public(Rittinghouse & Ransome, 2010). Therefore, Warnaco could made use of private cloud technology where sensitive data as CRM, can be saved with greater security and control. 2.1 Cloud CRM and Warnaco CRM is specialized software that helps organization keeping record of all of its constituents. In case of Warnaco group, this software is to be implemented for keeping track of company’s user profile, their purchasing power, views and reviews of latest and upcoming products, letting employees keep record of latest suggestion and much more. Cloud CRM makes use of data centers that are owned or rented by the CRM providers over the internet and can be accessed on one’s desktop. 2.2 Compact System Cloud CRM, unlike traditional costly and complex CRM systems, are much convenient to be used. They need not to own multiple licenses and complex hardware installations including high costs. Also cloud CRM provides flexibility in the number of users who want to access the database; rather than specific number of users, followed by additional charges for increase in users as in traditional systems. Therefore, clo ud computing is good to be used for implementing CRM in Warnaco as this company is having ever-growing business with frequent variation in the number of users accessing database of the company. Also Warnaco is having branches all over the country; this helps employees to connect to database remotely from an office server. Also, cloud networks are hosted by their own vendors who keep track of bugs and updates and provide timely fixes for them. 2.3 Hardware Requirement for Cloud CRM Cloud CRM is actually hosted at remote locations therefore,

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Procurement and supply chain management Essay Example for Free

Procurement and supply chain management Essay This Publication is concerned with the vital subject of business logistics and supply chain management, an area that can be essential to a firm’s competitive strategy and revenue generation. This management area has been described by many names, including physical distribution, materials management, transportation management, logistics, and supply chain management. Relevant business activities may include one or more of the following areas: transportation, inventory, order processing, purchasing, warehousing, materials handling, packaging, customer service standards, and production. The focus of this Publication is on the planning, organizing, and controlling of these activities key elements for successful management in any organization. Special emphasis is given to strategic planning and decision making as an important part of the management process. Managerial efforts are directed towards setting the level of the logistics activities so as to make products and services available to customers at the time and place required, and in the condition and form desired, in the most profitable and cost-effective way. Logistical activities have always been vital to organizations, and so business logistics and supply chain management represents a synthesis of many concepts, principles, and methods from the more traditional areas of marketing, production, accounting, purchasing, and transportation, as well as from the disciplines of applied mathematics, organizational behaviour, and economics. This Publication attempts to unify these elements to assist in the effective management of the supply chain. The Publication aims to present ideas, principles and techniques that are fundamental to good business logistics practice. It concentrates on important activities of management such as planning, organizing, and controlling, and also on a triangle of interrelated transportation, inventory, and location strategies, which are at the heart of good logistics planning and decision making. Contemporary trends that affect the scope and practice of business logistics and supply chain management have been integrated into the body of the text. Firstly, emphasis is placed on logistics and supply chain management in a worldwide setting to reflect the growing internationalization and globalization of business in general. Secondly, the shift towards service-oriented economies by industrialized nations is emphasized by showing how logistics concepts and principles are applicable to both service-producing tirms and product-producing ones. Thirdly, attention is given to the integrated management of supply chain activities. 1 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk The Publication contains many practical and contemporary examples that show the applicability of the textual material and assist in the understanding and learning of the key points and concepts. Each Chapter in this Cambridge International College Publication on Logistics, Chain Supply Transport Management includes: †¢ An introduction section †¢ Examples and/or figures and diagrams to explain the concepts being covered †¢ A summary of concluding comments †¢ Review Questions designed to reinforce learning and contemplation of what is covered in the Chapter Advice on How to Study this Program Every individual CIC Member approaches his/her study in a different manner, and different people may have a particular study method that they find most effective for them. However, the following is a tested and proven Study Method, suggested to you as a CIC Member in order to assist in making your study and learning easier and enjoyable and to assist you to quickly master the contents of this CIC Publication on Logistics, Chain Supply Transport Management: Step 1: Set yourself a flexible study schedule, depending on the time you have available and what is best for you. For example, the target set could be to study for 1 or 2 hours a night, or for 8 or 9 hours a week, or to complete one Chapter every 2 weeks. There is no set or compulsory schedule, but simply setting a schedule or goal is often an important action in ensuring that study is undertaken successfully and within the specified timeframe. Step 2: Read the whole of the first Chapter at your normal reading pace, without trying to memorise every topic covered or fact stated, but trying to get â€Å"the feel† of what is dealt with in the Chapter as a whole. Step 3: Start reading the Chapter again from the beginning, this time reading more slowly, paragraph by paragraph and section by section. Make brief notes of any points, sentences, paragraphs or sections which you feel need your further study, consideration or thought. You may wish to keep any notes in a separate file or notebook. Try to absorb and memorise all the important topics covered. Step 4: Start reading the Chapter again from its start, this time paying particular attention to and if necessary studying more thoroughly those parts on which you earlier wrote notes for further study. It is best that you do not pass on to other parts or topics until you are certain you fully understand and remember those parts you earlier noted as requiring your special attention. Try to fix everything taught firmly in your mind. 2 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk Step 5: There are self-assessment review questions at the end of the Chapter, and you are strongly advised to try to answer or think about them as best you can but do not send your answers to the College. If these questions/exercises highlight any areas that you feel you need to revise or re-read in the Chapter, then go ahead and do that before moving on to Step 6. Step 6: Once you have completed steps 1 to 5 above, move on to the next Chapter and repeat steps 1 to 5 for each subsequent Chapter. 3 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk LOGISTICS, SUPPLY CHAIN TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM MODULE ONE BUSINESS LOGISTICS/SUPPLY CHAIN A VITAL SUBJECT (based on Chapter 1 of ‘Logistics, Supply Chain and Transport Management’ by Ronald H Ballou) Contents Introduction Business Logistics Defined The Supply Chain The Activity Mix Importance of Logistics/Supply Chain (SC) Costs Are Significant Logistics Customer Service Expectations Are Increasing Supply and Distribution Lines Are Lengthening with Greater Complexity Logistics/SC Is Important to Strategy Logistics/SC Adds Significant Customer Value Customers Increasingly Want Quick, Customized Response Logistics/SC in Non-Manufacturing Areas Service Industry Military Environment Business Logistics/SC in the Firm Objectives of Business Logistics/SC Questions and Problems Introduction As far back as history records, the goods that people wanted were not always produced where they wanted to consume them, or these goods were not accessible when people wanted to consume them. Food and other commodities were widely dispersed and were only available in abundance at certain times of the year. Early peoples had the choice of consuming goods at their immediate location or moving the goods to a preferred site and storing them for later use. However, because no well developed transportation and storage systems yet existed, the movement of goods was limited to what an individual could personally move, and storage of perishable commodities was possible for only a short time. This limited movement-storage system generally constrained people to live close to the sources of production and to consume a rather narrow range of goods. Even today, in some areas of the world consumption and production take place only within a very limited geographic region. Striking examples can still be observed in the developing nations of Asia, South America, Australia, and Africa, where some of the population live in small, self-sufficient villages, and most of the goods needed by the residents are produced or acquired in the immediate vicinity. Few goods are imported from other areas. Therefore, production efficiency and the economic standard of living are generally low. In this type of economy, a well-developed and inexpensive logistics system would encourage an exchange of goods with other producing areas of the country, or even the world. 4 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk As logistics systems improved, consumption and production began to separate geographically. Regions would specialize in those commodities that could be produced most efficiently. Excess production could be shipped economically to other producing (or consuming) areas, and needed goods not produced locally were imported. This exchange process follows the principle of comparative advantage. This same principle, when applied to world markets, helps to explain the high level of international trade that takes place today. Efficient logistics systems allow world businesses to take advantage of the fact that lands, and the people who occupy them, are not equally productive. Logistics is the very essence of trade. It contributes to a higher economic standard of living for us all. To the individual firm operating in a high-level economy, good management of logistics activities is vital. Markets are often national or international in scope, whereas production may be concentrated at relatively few points. Logistics activities provide the bridge between production and market locations that are separated by time and distance. Effective management of these activities is the major concern of this Program. Business Logistic Defined Business logistics is a relatively new field of integrated management study in comparison with the traditional fields of finance, marketing, and production. As previously noted, logistics activities have been carried out by individuals for many years. Businesses also have continually engaged in movestore (transportation-inventory) activities. The newness of the field results from the concept of coordinated management of the related activities, rather than the historical practice of managing them separately, and the concept that logistics adds value to products or services that are essential to customer satisfaction and sales. Although co-ordinated logistics management has not been generally practiced until recently, the idea of co-ordinated management can be traced back to at least 1844. In the writings of Jules Dupuit, a French engineer, the idea of trading one cost for another (transportation costs for inventory costs) was evident in the selection between road and water transport: â€Å"The fact is that carriage by road being quicker, more reliable and less subject to loss or damage, it possesses advantage to which businessmen often attach a considerable value. However, it may well be that a saving induces the merchant to use a canal; he can buy warehouses and increase his floating capital in order to have a sufficient supply of goods on hand to protect himself against slowness and irregularity of the canal, and if all told the saving in transport gives him a cost advantage, he will decide in favour of the new route. † The first textbook to suggest the benefits of co-ordinated logistics management appeared around 1961, in part explaining why a generally accepted definition of business logistics is still emerging. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore several definitions for the scope and content of the subject. A dictionary definition of the term logistics is: â€Å"The branch of military science having to do with procuring, maintaining, and transporting material, personnel, and facilities. † This definition puts logistics into a military context. To the extent that business objectives and activities differ from those of the military, this definition does not capture the essence of business logistics management. A better representation of the field may be reflected in the definition promulgated by the Council of Logistics Management (CLM), a professional organization of logistics 5 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk managers, educators, and practitioners formed in 1962 for the purposes of continuing education and fostering the interchange of ideas. Its definition: â€Å"Logistics is that part of the supply chain process that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption in order to meet customers’ requirements. † This is an excellent definition, conveying the idea that product flows are to be managed from the point where they exist as raw materials to the point where they are finally discarded. Logistics is also concerned with the flow of services as well as physical goods, an area of growing opportunity for improvement. It also suggests that logistics is a process, meaning that it includes all the activities that have an impact on making goods and services available to customers when and where they wish to acquire them. However, the definition implies that logistics is part of the supply chain process, not the entire process. So, what is the supply chain process or, more popularly, supply chain management? Supply chain management (SCM) is a term that has emerged in recent years that captures the essence of integrated logistics and even goes beyond it. Supply chain management emphasizes the logistics interactions that take place among the functions of marketing, logistics, and production within a firm and those interactions that take place between the legally separate firms within the product-flow channel. Opportunities for cost or customer service improvement are achieved through co-ordination and collaboration among the channel members where some essential supply chain activities may not be under the direct control of the logistician. Although early definitions such as physical distribution, materials management, industrial logistics and channel management all terms used to describe logistics have promoted this broad scope for logistics, there was little attempt to implement logistics beyond a company’s own enterprise boundaries, or even beyond its own internal logistics function. Now, retail firms are showing success in sharing information with suppliers, who in turn agree to maintain and manage inventories on retailers’ shelves. Channel inventories and product stockouts are lower. Manufacturing firms operating under just-in-time production scheduling build relationships with suppliers for the benefit of both companies by reducing inventories. Definitions of the supply chain and supply chain management reflecting this broader scope are: â€Å"The supply chain (SC) encompasses all activities associated with the flow and transformation of goods from the raw materials stage (extraction), through to the end user, as well as the associated information flows. Materials and information flow both up and down the supply chain. † â€Å"Supply chain management (SCM) is the integration of these activities, through improved supply chain relationships, to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. † After careful study of the various definitions being offered, Mentzer and other writers propose the broad and rather general definition as follows: â€Å"Supply chain management is defined as the systematic, strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company and across businesses within the supply chain, for the purposes of improving the long-term performance of the individual companies and the supply chain as a whole. † 6 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] The supply chain management model in Figure 1-1 viewed as a pipeline shows the scope of this definition. It is important to note that supply chain management is about the co-ordination of product flows across functions and across companies to achieve competitive advantage and profitability for the individual companies in the supply chain and the supply chain members collectively. It is difficult, in a practical way, to separate business logistics management from supply chain management. In so many respects, they promote the same mission: â€Å"To get the right goods or services to the right place, at the right time, and in the desired condition, while making the greatest contribution to the firm. † Some claim that supply chain management is just another name for integrated business logistics management (IBLM) and that the broad scope of supply chain management has been promoted over the years. Conversely, others say that logistics is a subset of SCM, where SCM considers additional issues beyond those of product flow. For example, SCM may be concerned with product pricing and manufacturing quality. Although SCM promotes viewing the supply channel with the broadest scope, the reality is that firms do not practise this ideal. Fawcett and Magan found that companies that do practise supply chain integration limit their scope to one tier upstream and one tier downstream. The focus seems to be concerned with creating seamless processes within their own companies and applying new information technologies to improve the quality of information and speed of its exchange among channel members. The boundary between the logistics and supply chain management terms is fuzzy. Even then, logistics activities are repeated once again as used products are recycled upstream in the logistics channel. A single firm generally is not able to control its entire product flow channel from raw material source to points of the final consumption, although this is an emerging opportunity. For practical purposes, the business logistics for the individual firm has a narrower scope. Usually, the maximum managerial control that can be expected is over the immediate physical supply and physical distribution channels, as shown in Figure 1-2. The physical supply channel refers to the time and space gap between a firm’s immediate material sources and its processing points. Similarly, the physical distribution channel refers to the time and space gap between the firm’s processing points and its customers. Due to the similarities in the activities between the two channels, physical supply (more commonly referred to as materials management) 8 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk and physical distribution comprise those activities that are integrated into business logistics. Business logistics management is now popularly referred to as supply chain management. Others have used terms such as value nets, value stream, and lean logistics to describe a similar scope and purpose. The evolution of the management of product flows toward SCM is captured in Figure 1-3. Although it is easy to think of logistics as managing the flow of products from the points of raw material acquisition to end customers, for many firms there is a reverse logistics channel that must be managed as well. The life of a product, from a logistics viewpoint, does not end with delivery to the customer. Products become obsolete, damaged, or nonfunctioning and are returned to their source points for repair or disposition. Packaging materials may be returned to the shipper due to environmental regulations or because it makes good economic sense to reuse them. The reverse logistics channel may utilize all or a portion of the forward logistics channel or it may require a separate design. The supply chain terminates with the final disposition of a product. The reverse channel must be considered to be within the scope of logistics planning and control. The Activity Mix The activities to be managed that make up business logistics (supply chain process) vary from firm to firm, depending on a firm’s particular organizational structure, management’s honest differences of opinion about what constitutes the supply chain for its business, and the importance of individual activities to its operations. Follow along the supply chain as shown in Figure 1-2 and note the important activities that take place. Again, according to the CLM: 9 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk â€Å"The components of a typical logistics system are: customer service, demand forecasting, distribution communications, inventory control, material handling, order processing, parts and service support, plant and warehouse site selection (location analysis), purchasing, packaging, return goods handling, salvage and scrap disposal, traffic and transportation, and warehousing and storage. † Figure 1-4 organizes these components, or activities, according to where they are most likely to take place in the supply channel. The list is further divided into key and support activities, along with some of the decisions associated with each activity. Customer service standards co-operate with marketing to: a. Determine customer needs and wants for logistics customer service b. Determine customer response to service c. Set customer service levels 2. Transportation a. Mode and transport service selection b. Freight consolidation c. Carrier routing d. Vehicle scheduling e. Equipment selection f. Claims processing g. Rate auditing 3. Inventory management a. Raw materials and finished goods stocking policies b. Short-term sales forecasting c. Product mix at stocking points 10 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk d. Number, size, and location of stocking points e. Just-in-time, push, and pull strategies 4. Information flows and order processing a. Sales order-inventory interface procedures b. Order information transmittal methods c. Ordering rules Support Activities 1. Warehousing a. Space determination b. Stock layout and dock design c. Warehouse configuration d. Stock placement 2. Materials handling a. Equipment selection b. Equipment replacement policies c. Order-picking procedures d. Stock storage and retrieval 3. Purchasing a. Supply source selection b. Purchase timing c. Purchase quantities 4. Protective packaging designed for: a. Handling b. Storage c. Protection from loss and damage 5. Co-operate with production/operations to: a. Specify aggregate quantities b. Sequence and time production output c. Schedule supplies for production/operations 6. Information maintenance a. Information collection, storage, and manipulation b. Data analysis Control procedures Key and support activities are separated because certain activities will generally take place in every logistics channel, whereas others will take place, depending on the circumstances, within a particular firm. The key activities are on the â€Å"critical† loop within a firm’s immediate physical distribution channel, as shown in Figure 1 to 5. They contribute most to the total cost of logistics or they are essential to the effective co-ordination and completion of the logistics task. 11 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk Customer service standards set the level of output and degree of readiness to which the logistics system must respond. Logistics costs increase in proportion to the level of customer service provided, such that setting the standards for service also affects the logistics costs to support that level of service. Setting very high service requirements can force logistics costs to exceedingly high levels. Transportation and inventories maintenance are the primary cost-absorbing logistics activities. Experience has shown that each will represent one-half to two-thirds of total logistics costs. Transportation adds place value to products and services, whereas inventories maintenance adds time value. Transportation is essential because no modern firm can operate without providing for the movement of its raw materials or its finished products. This importance is underscored by the financial strains placed on many firms by such disasters as a national railroad strike or independent truckers’ refusal to move goods because of rate disputes. In these circumstances, markets cannot be served, and products back up in the logistics pipeline to deteriorate or become obsolete. Inventories are also essential to logistics management because it is usually not possible or practical to provide instant production or ensure delivery times to customers. They serve as buffers between supply and demand so that needed product availability may be maintained for customers while providing flexibility for production and logistics in seeking efficient methods for manufacture and distribution of the product. Order processing is the final key activity. Its costs usually are minor compared to transportation or inventory maintenance costs. Nevertheless, order processing is an important element in the total time that it takes for a customer to receive goods or services. It is the activity triggering product movement and service delivery. Although support activities may be as critical as the key activities in any particular circumstance, they are considered here as contributing to the logistics mission. In addition, one or more of the support activities may not be a part of the logistics activity mix for every firm. For example, products such as finished automobiles or commodities such as coal, iron ore, or gravel not needing the weather and security protection of warehousing will not require the warehousing activity, even though inventories are maintained. However, warehousing and materials handling are typically conducted wherever products are temporarily halted in their movement to the marketplace. 12 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk Protective packaging is a support activity of transportation and inventory maintenance as well as of warehousing and materials handling because it contributes to the efficiency with which these other activities are carried out. Purchasing and product scheduling often may be considered more a concern of production than of logistics. However, they also affect the overall logistics effort, and specifically they affect the efficiency of transportation and inventory management. Finally, information maintenance supports all other logistics activities in that it provides the needed information for planning and control. The extended supply chain refers to those members of the supply channel beyond the firm’s immediate suppliers or customers. They may be suppliers to the immediate suppliers or customers of the immediate customers and so on until raw material source points or end customers are reached. It is important to plan and control the previously noted activities and information flows if they affect the logistics customer service that can be provided and the costs of supplying this service. Management of the extended supply chain has the potential of improving logistics performance beyond that of just managing the activities within the immediate supply chain. Importance of Logistics/Supply Chain Logistics is about creating value value for customers and suppliers of the firm, and value for the firm’s stakeholders. Value in logistics is primarily expressed in terms of time and place. Products and services have no value unless they are in the possession of the customers when (time) and where (place) they wish to consume them. For example, concessions at a sports event have no value to consumers if they are not available at the time and place that the event is occurring, or if inadequate inventories don’t meet the demands of the sports fans. Good logistics management views each activity in the supply chain as contributing to the process of adding value. If little value can be added, it is questionable whether the activity should exist. However, value is added when customers are willing to pay more for a product or service than the cost to place it in their hands. To many firms throughout the world, logistics has become an increasingly important value-adding process for a number of reasons. Costs Are Significant Over the years, several studies have been conducted to determine the costs of logistics for the whole economy and for the individual firm. There are widely varying estimates of the cost levels. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), logistics costs average about 12 percent of the 13 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk world’s gross domestic product. Robert Delaney, who has tracked logistics costs for more than two decades, estimates that logistics costs for the U. S. economy are 9. 9 percent of the U. S. gross domestic product (GDP), or $921 billion. For the firm, logistics costs have ranged from 4 percent to over 30 percent of sales. The results from a cost survey of individual firms are shown in Table 1-3. Although the results show physical distribution costs at about 8 percent of sales, this survey does not include physical supply costs. Probably another one-third may be added to this total to represent average logistics costs for the firm at about 11 percent of sales. Over the last decade, physical distribution costs have ranged between 7 percent and 9 percent of sales. There may be a trend of increasing costs for individual firms, although Wilson and Delaney show over the same period that logistics costs as a percent of U. S. GDP have declined by about 10 percent. Logistics costs, substantial for most firms, rank second only to the cost of goods sold (purchase costs) that are about 50 percent to 60 percent of sales for the average manufacturing firm. Value is added by minimizing these costs and by passing the benefits on to customers and to the firm’s shareholders. Logistics Customer Service Expectations Are Increasing The Internet, just-in-time operating procedures, and continuous replenishment of inventories have all contributed to customers expecting rapid processing of their requests, quick delivery, and a high degree of product availability. According to the Davis Survey of hundreds of companies over the last decade, world-class competitors have average order cycle times (the time between when an order is placed and when it is received) of seven to eight days and line item fill rates of 90 percent to 94 percent. LogFac summarizes world-class logistics performance for domestic companies as: Error rates of less than one per 1,000 orders shipped Logistics costs of well under 5 percent of sales Finished goods inventory turnover of 20 or more times per year Total order cycle time of five working days Transportation cost of one percent of sales revenue or less, if products sold are over $5 per 500 gms As might be expected, the average company performs below these cost and customer service benchmarks, when compared with the statistics in Tables 1-3 and 1-4. Supply and Distribution Lines Are Lengthening with Greater Complexity The trend is toward an integrated world economy. Firms are seeking, or have developed, global strategies by designing their products for a world market and producing them wherever the low-cost 14 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk raw materials, components, and labor can be found (e. g. , Ford’s Focus automobile), or they simply produce locally and sell internationally. In either case, supply and distribution lines are stretched, as compared with the producer who wishes to manufacture and sell only locally. Not only has the trend occurred naturally by firms seeking to cut costs or expand markets, but it is also being encouraged by political arrangements that promote trade. Examples of the latter are the European Union, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and the economic trade agreement among several countries of South America (MERCOSUR). Globalization and internationalization of industries everywhere will depend heavily on logistics performance and costs, as companies take more of a world view of their operations. As this happens, logistics takes on increased importance within the firm since its costs, especially transportation, become a larger part of the total cost structure. For example, if a firm seeks foreign suppliers for the raw materials that make up its final product or foreign locations to build its product, the motivation is to increase profit. Material and labor costs may be reduced, but logistics costs are likely to increase due to increased transportation and inventory costs. The â€Å"tradeoff†, as shown in Figure 1-6, may lead to higher profit by reducing materials, labour, and overhead costs at the expense of logistics costs and tariffs. â€Å"Outsourcing† adds value, but it requires careful management of logistics costs and product-flow times in the supply channel. Logistics/SC Is Important To Strategy Firms spend a great deal of time finding ways to differentiate their product offerings from those of their competitors. When management recognizes that logistics/SC affects a significant portion of a firm’s costs and that the result of decisions made about the supply chain processes yields different levels of customer service, it is in a position to use this effectively to penetrate new markets, to increase market share, and to increase profits. When a firm incurs the cost of moving the product toward the customer or making an inventory available in a timely manner, for the customer â€Å"value† has been created that was not there previously. It is value as surely as that created through the production of a quality product or through a low price. It is generally recognized that business creates four types of value in products or services. These are: form, time, place, and possession. Logistics creates two out of these four values. Manufacturing creates form value as inputs are converted to outputs, that is raw materials are transformed into finished goods. Logistics controls the time and place values in products, mainly through transportation, information flows, and inventories. Possession value is often considered the responsibility of marketing, engineering, and finance, where the value is created by helping customers acquire the product through such mechanisms as advertising (information), technical support, and terms of sale (pricing and credit availability). To the extent that SCM includes production, three out of the four values may be the responsibility of the logistics/supply chain manager. Customers Increasingly Want Quick, Customized Response Fast food retailers, automatic teller machines, overnight package delivery, and electronic mail on the Internet have led us as consumers to expect that products and services can be made available in increasingly shorter times. In addition, improved information systems and flexible manufacturing processes have led the marketplace toward mass customization. Rather than consumers having to accept the â€Å"one size fits all† philosophy in their purchases, suppliers are increasingly offering products that meet individual customer needs. Companies too have been applying the concept of quick response to their internal operations in order to meet the service requirements of their own marketing efforts. The quick response philosophy has been used to create a marketing advantage. Saks Fifth Avenue applied it, even though big profits are made through big margins and not on cost reductions that might be achieved from good logistics management. Supply chain costs may even rise, although the advantage is to more than cover these costs through increased profits. Logistics/SC in Non-manufacturing Areas It is perhaps easiest to think of logistics/SC in terms of moving and storing a physical product in a manufacturing setting. This is too narrow a view and can lead to many missed business opportunities. The logistics/SC principles and concepts learned over the years can be applied to such areas as service industries, the military, and even environment management. Service Industry The service sector of industrialized countries is large and growing. In the United States, over 70 percent of all jobs are in what the federal government classifies as the service sector. The size of this sector alone forces us to ask if logistics concepts are not equally applicable here as they are to the manufacturing sector. If they are, there is a tremendous untapped opportunity yet to be fulfilled. Many companies designated as service firms in fact produce a product. Examples include: McDonald’s Corporation (fast foods); Dow Jones Co. , Inc. (newspaper publishing); and Sears, Roebuck and Co. (merchandise retailing). These companies carry out all the typical supply chain activities of any manufacturing firm. However, for service companies such as Bank One (retail banking), Marriott Corporation (lodging) and Consolidated Edison (electric power), supply chain activities, 16 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: [emailprotected] com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk especially those associated with physical distribution, are not as obvious. Even though many service-oriented companies may be distributing an intangible, nonphysical product, they do engage in many physical distribution activities and decisions. A hospital may want to extend emergency medical care throughout the community and must make decisions as to the locations of the centers. United Parcel Service and Federal Express must locate terminals and route pickup and delivery trucks. The East Ohio Gas Company inventories natural gas in underground wells during the off-season in the region where demand will occur. Bank One must locate and have cash inventory on hand for its ATMs. The Federal Reserve Bank must select the methods of transportation to move cancelled cheques among member banks. The Catholic Church must decide the number, location, and size of the churches needed to meet shifts in size and location of congregations, as well as to plan the inventory of its pastoral staff. Xerox’s repair service for copying equipment is also a good example of the logistics decisions encountered in a service operation. The techniques, concepts, and methods discussed throughout this Program should be as applicable to the service sector as they are to the manufacturing sector. The key, according to Theodore Levitt, may be in transforming an intangible service into a tangible product. Problems will remain in carefully identifying the costs associated with the distribution of an intangible product. Perhaps because of this, few service firms or organizations have a physical distribution manager on their staff, although they frequently do have a materials manager to handle supply matters. However, managing logistics in service industries does represent a new direction for the future development of logistics practice. Military Before businesses showed much interest in co-ordinating supply chain processes, the military was well organized to carry out logistics activities. More than a decade before business logistics’ developmental period, the military carried out what was called the most complex, best-planned logistics operation of that time-the invasion of Europe during World War II. Although the problems of the military, with its extremely high customer service requirements, were not identical with those of business, the similarities were great enough to provide a valuable experience base during the developmental years of logistics. For example, the military alone maintained inventories valued at about one-third of those held by all U. s. manufacturers. In addition to the management experience that such large-scale operations provide, the military sponsored, and continues to sponsor, research in the logistics area through such organizations as the RAND Corporation and the Office of Naval Research. With this background, the field of business logistics began to grow. Even the term logistics seems to have had its origins in the military. A recent example of military logistics on a large scale was the conflict between the United States and Iraq over Iraq’s invasion of the small country of Kuwait. This invasion has been described as the largest military logistics operation in history. The logistics support in that war is yet another illustration of what worldclass companies have always known: Good logistics can be a source of competitive advantage. Lt General William Pagonis, in charge of logistics support for Desert Storm, observed: â€Å"When the Middle East started heating up, it seemed like a good time to pull out some history books on desert warfare in this region . But there was nothing on logistics. Logistics is not a best seller. In a couple of his diaries, Rommel talked about logistics. He thought the Germans lost the battle not because they didn’t have great soldiers or equipment in fact, the German tanks outfought ours almost throughout World War II but because the British had better logistics. † 17 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: The first wave of 200,000 troops and their equipment was deployed in a month and a half, whereas troop deployment took nine months in the Vietnam conflict. In addition, the application of many good logistics concepts was evident. Take customer service, for example: â€Å"We believed that if we took care of our troops, the objectives would be accomplished no matter whatever else happened. The soldiers are our customers. It is no different than a determined, single focus on customers that many successful businesses have. Now, you take care of your soldiers not only by providing them cold sodas, and burgers, and good food: you make sure they have the ammunition on the front line, so that when they go fight the war they know they have what they need. † This meant that when 120 mm guns rather than 105 mm guns were desired on tanks, they were changed. When brown vehicles were preferred over the traditional camouflage green, they were repainted at the rate of 7,000 per month. Environment Population growth and resultant economic development have heightened our awareness of environmental issues. Whether it is recycling, packaging materials, transporting hazardous materials or refurbishing products for resale, logisticians are involved in a major way. After all, the United States alone produces more than 160 million tons of waste each year, enough for a convoy of 10-ton garbage trucks reaching halfway to the moon. In many cases, planning for logistics in an environmental setting is no different from that in manufacturing or service sectors. However, in a few cases additional complications arise, such as governmental regulations that make the logistics for a product more costly by extending the distribution channel. Business Logistics in the Firm It has been the tradition in many firms to organize around marketing and production functions. Typically, marketing means selling something and production means making something. Although few business people would agree that their organization is so simple, the fact remains that many businesses emphasize these functions while treating other activities, such as traffic, purchasing, accounting, and engineering, as support areas. Such an attitude is justified to a degree, because if a firm’s products cannot be produced and sold, little else matters. However, such a pattern is dangerously simple for many firms to follow in that it fails to recognize the importance of the activities that must take place between points and times of production or purchase and the points and times of demand. These are the logistics activities, and they affect the efficiency and effectiveness of both marketing and production. Scholars and practitioners of both marketing and production have not neglected the importance of logistics. In fact, each area considers logistics within its scope of action. For example, the following definition of marketing management includes physical distribution: â€Å"Marketing (management) is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges with target groups that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. † Marketing’s concern is to place its products or services in convenient distribution channels to facilitate the exchange process. The concept of production/ operations management often includes logistics activities. Now, viewing product flow activities as a process to be coordinated, product flow aspects within marketing, production, and logistics are collectively managed to achieve customer service objectives. The difference in operating objectives (maximize revenue versus minimize cost) for marketing and production/operations may lead to a fragmentation of interest in, and responsibility for, logistics activities, as well as a lack of co-ordination among logistics activities as a whole. This, in turn, may lead to lower customer service levels or higher total logistics costs than are necessary. Business logistics represents a regrouping, either by formal organizational structure or conceptually in the minds of management, of the move-store activities that historically may have been partially under the control of marketing and production/ operations. If logistics activities are looked upon as a separate area of managerial action, the relationship of logistics activities to those of marketing and production/ operations would be as is shown in Figure 1-7. Marketing would be primarily responsible for market research, promotion, sales-force management, and the product mix, which create possession value in the product. Production/ operations would be concerned with the creation of the product or service, which creates form value in the product. Key responsibilities would be quality control, production planning and scheduling, job design, capacity planning, maintenance, and work measurement and standards. Logistics would be concerned with those activities (previously defined) that give a product or service time and place value. This separation of the activities of the firm into three groupings rather than two is not always necessary or advisable to achieve the coordination of logistics activities that is sought. Marketing and production/operations, when broadly conceived and co-ordinated, can do an effective job of managing logistics activities without creating an additional organizational entity. Even if a separate functional area is created for logistics within the firm so as to achieve effective control of the firm’s immediate logistics activities, logisticians will need to view their responsibility as one of coordinating the entire supply chain process rather than being just a local logistics activity administrator. To do otherwise may miss substantial opportunities for cost reduction and logistics customer service improvement. The interface is created by the arbitrary separation of a firm’s activities into a limited number of functional areas. Managing the interface activities by one function alone can lead to sub-optimal performance for the firm by subordinating broader company goals to individual functional goals-a potential danger resulting from the departmental form of organizational structure so common in companies today. To achieve interfunctional coordination, some measurement system and incentives for cooperation among the functions involved need to be established. This is equally true of the inter-organizational co-ordination required to manage product flows across company boundaries. It is important to note, however, that establishing a third functional group is not without its disadvantages. Two functional interfaces now exist where only one between marketing and production/ operations previously existed. Some of the most difficult administrative problems arise from the interfunctional conflicts that occur when one is attempting to manage interface activities. Some of this potential conflict may be dissipated if a new organizational arrangement is created whereby production/ operations and logistics are merged into one group called supply chain. Just as managers are beginning to understand the benefits of interfunctional logistics management, inter-organizational management is being encouraged. Supply chain management proponents who view the area more broadly than some logisticians have been strongly promoting the need for collaboration among supply channel members that are outside the immediate control of a company’s  logistician, that is, members who are legally separate companies. Collaboration among the channel members that are linked through buyer-seller relationships is essential to achieving cost-service benefits unable to be realized by managers with strictly an internal view of their responsibilities. Supply chain managers consider themselves to have responsibility for the entire supply channel of the scope as illustrated in Figure 1-8. Managing in this broader environment is the new challenge for the contemporary logistician. Objectives of Business Logistics/SC Within the broader objectives of the firm, the business logistician seeks to achieve supply channel process goals that will move the firm toward its overall objectives. Specifically, the desire is to develop a logistics activity mix that will result in the highest possible return on investment over time. There are two dimensions to this goal: (1) the impact of the logistics system design on the revenue contribution, and (2) the operating cost and capital requirements of the design. Ideally, the logistician should know how much additional revenue would be generated through incremental improvements.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Process of Job Evaluation and Determining Pay

Process of Job Evaluation and Determining Pay Motivation is the process by which the behaviour of an individual is influenced by others, through their power to offer or withhold satisfaction of the individuals needs and goals. (BPP Learning Media, 2010) Motivation theories are divided into two different viewpoints. See content and process theories of motivation in (Appendix 1). Content theories emphasis what motivations are, whereas process theories emphasise the real process of motivation. On the other hand reward is something that employees achieve during their work. It can be financial when the company pays for their performance and it can be non-financial which in this case means that the company rewards employees by promotion, achievement and praise. Maslow puts forward a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work (Mullins, 2005). See (Appendix 2). Maslow mentions in his theory that managers following this theory deflect their attentiveness to offering complementary pleasing relationships, more attractive work, and more opportunities for self-fulfillment. On the other hand, Herzberg in his theory suggests that there are two basic needs of individuals such as hygiene factors (environmental factors) and motivation factors. See (Appendix 3). Managers following Herzbergs theory reject money as a motivator and pay attention to supplying more job enhancements. According to McGregors theory, managers may follow two different theories which is theory X and theory Y. Pursuant to theory X, the average employee dislikes work and will avoid it whether he/she knows what to do or not, that is why employers suggest Theory Y which leads them to do excellent job and managers offer opportunities to have a job done. However, McClelland focuses interest on providing employees with the capability to persuade their needs for success, power, and relationship. Companies use both positive amplification and negative amplification to motivate employees. Managers may use positive motivation techniques to persuade employees to create good quality job. Some managers may use negative motivation techniques to encourage employees and stop them from bad manners. However, companies reward their employees with both touchable products, as well as admire. Mangers may reward their employees by providing weekly or monthly bonus or free lunches, many managers reward their top employees by praising them. For example: Tesco uses two motivation theories Maslows and Herzbergs, see both hierarchies in (Appendix 4). Tesco uses Maslows theory because it suggests the company if they achieve one level then it motivates them to achieve the next one. Also Tesco aims to motivate its staff both by paying interest to hygiene factors and by enabling satisfiers. For example, Tesco motivates its staff by good communication, by giving responsibility and involving employees in decision making. Tesco allows the staffs to be part of the talks on pay rises. This shows credit of the work that staff does and rewards them. In Tesco, they reward staff for their works because it keeps motivating them at work and will carry on applying different motivation theories at work. Monetary reward uses by Tesco in a way of getting employees to welcome the complete value of their benefits package. Tesco also follows pension system and this usually includes pension assistance that the employer creates on the employees behalf and being process in payroll department. They also reward employees by giving them extra benefits such as car insurance and private medical insurance, by special offers and discounts. See Tescos reward system in (Appendix 5). Evaluate the process of job evaluation and other factors determining pay The Process of Job Evaluation: Job evaluation is a systematic process for defining the relative worth or size of jobs within an organisation in order to establish internal relativities. It provides the basis for designing an equitable grade and pay structure, grading jobs in the structure and managing job and pay relativities.(Armstrong, 2006) Job evaluation is really an extensive process and it must follow in a systematic approach. At the beginning of this process management must make clear to its employees the reason of this program and importance of it. After that a group has been fixed where all the knowledgeable HR specialists and employees are included. In the next step organisation chooses the job from each department that they are going to evaluate. Then the selected job is investigated in detail by the committee. Next, the committee chooses a method for the job evaluation. There are two methods that can be followed to evaluate a job and these are: Analytical points rating, factor comparison, proprietary brands; and Non-analytical job ranking, job classification, paired comparisons. The other factors determining pay: The pay, which is an award for work, can be influenced by various factors and it creates some difference between the roles and the organisations. Those factors are as follows: Size of the organisation, Seniority, Skills and experience, Industry sector, Profitability of the organisation, Employee performance. See (Appendix 6) for more detail. The effectiveness of reward systems in different contexts Bratton and Gold (2003) define a reward system as The mix of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards provided by the employer. It also consists of the integrated policies, processes, practices and administrative procedures for implementing the system within the framework of the human resources (HR) strategy and the total organisational system. There are two types of rewards: Extrinsic rewards which are tangible rewards that employee receives for their good performance, such as bonuses, salary raise, gifts, promotion, compensation and commissions. Intrinsic rewards are inclined to give personal satisfaction to an employee, such as information, feedback, recognition, trust and relationship. Employee bonus systems are positive strategies and they can provide actual motivation. Moreover to monetary thoughts; bonus systems take into account factors such as attendance, customer service, quality, group and individual performance. Also bonuses increase employees motivation and output. It improves employees morale and increases their self-esteem. However, a carefully planned bonus scheme can improve retention which helps to preserve the best employees. Salary raise is the other types of reward system and it is one of the most significant motivators for the employee, also it is the key motivation behind an employees performance. Promotion is one of the most important types of reward system, where an organisation rewards an employee by moving them from their position to a higher position. Promotion improves employees morale and job satisfaction. However, improved performance is an effectiveness of reward system; it helps the employee to perform better at work in order to get extra reward from the organisation. At the same time employees also put their efforts, skills and knowledge which help them to learn something new. However, reward system also boosts profit, where a company has good opportunity to make profit because employee works honestly and carefully. It also helps to bring positive psychological contract between employees and the organisation; it creates a better working environment and helps organisation to keep gifted, potential employees with them. Examine the methods organisations use to monitor employee performance. There are some methods that are used by Tesco to monitor their employees performance. Tesco uses observation and feedback to monitor their employees performance. In this system Tesco hires someone to monitor the performance of the employee, after that this person provides straightforward feedback. By observing and providing feedback Tesco can give the accurate shape to the employees of what is expected from them. Tesco also uses performance standards and it is one of the employee performances monitoring system where performance has been compared with the criterion and where employee needs to accomplish this criterion. In this system performance must be realistic, measurable and expressed in terms of time, quality, cost, quantity, effect, or manner of performance. Performance evaluation is another method that used by Tesco to determine the actual job performance of an employee against chosen performance standards. In Tesco employees are interviewed to talk about their performance to identify strengths and weaknesses, and to create a plan how to improve weaknesses and increase strengths. Tesco also uses a method known as 360-degree appraisal (Business Case Studies, 2013). In this method all Tescos stakeholders evaluate an employees performance and give them feedback. For example, a manager of one department gets feedback from their manager from HR department and their team. Conclusion: The conclusion of this report shows that employees motivation and reward are very important. There are many types of theories of motivation such as Maslows, Herzbergs, McClellands and McGregors theories. Each theory has a slightly different view of leaders and employees motivation. Motivation is managers action to influence employees behaviour at work, so that perform as required in order to achieve organisational goals. Reward management can be view as a type of management practice where employees are rewarded for their performance. Rewards can be tangible and intangible benefits for the employee as part of employment relationship. Employees consider the reward as a return in exchange of their performance being appreciated by their employer.

Living with Epilepsy :: Personal Narrative Essays

Living with Epilepsy It was a cold, rainy day. I could see most of the kids at the bus stop had winter coats and hats. The clouds were particularly low in the sky. After evading the numerous puddles in the road, I reached the bus stop and walked up to a group of friends. A girl in my class spotted me and asked, "Are you going to the dance tomorrow?" I froze. I had forgotten about the dance and now was uncertain about whether I was going or not. "Yeah, probably," I answered. She nodded and we discussed other things, but my mind never wandered away from the question she had posed. Suddenly, the bus appeared and I climbed on and took a seat in the front. I needed some time to think. Ever since the doctors told me I had epilepsy, I have lived with an added stress. When I was younger it was not as stressful as it is now that I am in high school. I know that I have become increasingly self-conscious about it. The first seizure I ever had was in fourth grade. The doctors do not know what triggered the seizure, and I do not remember it. The students and teachers told me that I screamed and lost consciousness. Then I started jerking with muscle contractions. Later, the doctors told me I had epilepsy, specifically the type known as grand mal. Immediately, the doctors put me on some medications to prevent the seizures. They also gave my parents a bunch of packets of information about epilepsy. When I got older, some of those packets informed me that 20-25 million people have suffered from an epileptic seizure. Many people grow out of childhood epilepsy or they take medicine to control it. However, there is still a risk of having a seizure even if you take medication. Over the past few years, I have become increasingly aware of the chance of a seizure at any time. The day after my seizure, I came to school and the kids were a little frightened of me. It only took a little time for them to forget, but the few days after the seizure were unbearable. The kids acted like epilepsy was contagious. Of course, I understand that a seizure is a dramatic and frightening event. I can only speculate at what the kids in high school would do if they saw me having a seizure. Living with Epilepsy :: Personal Narrative Essays Living with Epilepsy It was a cold, rainy day. I could see most of the kids at the bus stop had winter coats and hats. The clouds were particularly low in the sky. After evading the numerous puddles in the road, I reached the bus stop and walked up to a group of friends. A girl in my class spotted me and asked, "Are you going to the dance tomorrow?" I froze. I had forgotten about the dance and now was uncertain about whether I was going or not. "Yeah, probably," I answered. She nodded and we discussed other things, but my mind never wandered away from the question she had posed. Suddenly, the bus appeared and I climbed on and took a seat in the front. I needed some time to think. Ever since the doctors told me I had epilepsy, I have lived with an added stress. When I was younger it was not as stressful as it is now that I am in high school. I know that I have become increasingly self-conscious about it. The first seizure I ever had was in fourth grade. The doctors do not know what triggered the seizure, and I do not remember it. The students and teachers told me that I screamed and lost consciousness. Then I started jerking with muscle contractions. Later, the doctors told me I had epilepsy, specifically the type known as grand mal. Immediately, the doctors put me on some medications to prevent the seizures. They also gave my parents a bunch of packets of information about epilepsy. When I got older, some of those packets informed me that 20-25 million people have suffered from an epileptic seizure. Many people grow out of childhood epilepsy or they take medicine to control it. However, there is still a risk of having a seizure even if you take medication. Over the past few years, I have become increasingly aware of the chance of a seizure at any time. The day after my seizure, I came to school and the kids were a little frightened of me. It only took a little time for them to forget, but the few days after the seizure were unbearable. The kids acted like epilepsy was contagious. Of course, I understand that a seizure is a dramatic and frightening event. I can only speculate at what the kids in high school would do if they saw me having a seizure.